3. (a) The definitions of distributary, lagoon and levee.
(i) Distributary is a stream that branches off and flows away from a main stream channel. Distributaries are a common feature of river deltas. The phenomenon is known as river bifurcation. The opposite of a distributary is a tributary. Distributaries are found where a stream nears a lake or an ocean. They can also occur inland, on alluvial fans, or where a tributary stream bifurcates as it nears its confluence with a larger stream. In some cases, a minor distributary can divert so much water from the main channel that it can become the main route.
(ii) Lagoon is an area of shallow water separated from the sea by low sandy dunes.
Or, Lagoons is a shallow body of water separated from the ocean by sandbars, barrier islands, or coral reefs. Lagoons are often called estuaries, sounds, bays, or even lakes.
The Pictures of Lagoons
(iii) Levee is a long narrow ridge of material running along the banks of a river. This material will be composed of larger particles, sometimes as large as boulders, near the bank and finer material further away from the bank. Levees form as a result of flooding. They are found in the lower course of a river. Levees are landforms (features) created by deposition.
b) The conditions necessary for formation of river delta:
A river delta is a land form that forms at the mouth of a river, where the river flows into an ocean, sea, estuary, lake, or reservoir. Deltas form from deposition of sediment carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth. Over long periods, this deposition builds the characteristic geographic pattern of a river delta.
The following are conditions necessary for formation of river delta:
i) The river must have large load. This will be possible if there is active erosion in the upper and middle stages.
ii) There should not be extensive deposition in the middle stage e.g. presence of lake in between or high evaporation rate (first).
iii) High rate of deposition than the rate of removal of silt at the river mouth.
iv) Presence of shallow adjoining sea or continental shelf.
v) The velocity of a river must be sufficiently low to allow most of its load to be deposited in the river’s mouth.
vi) Weak sea waves at the river mouth
4. (a) Types of statistical graph is called simple bar graph which is a method of data presentation that involves construction of bars used to show variation of distribution of items by means of bars.
(b) Five procedures involved in constructing such a statistical graph are
(i). Choose appropriate scale
(ii). Draw the axes and insert the bars. All bars must have the same width and spacing
(iii). Shade the bars uniformly
(iv). Insert vertical and horizontal scales.
(v). Write title of the graph.
(c) I. Coffee production ( in Tonnes) in Tanzania increase from 2011 to 2012.
Ii. Coffee production ( in Tonnes) in Tanzania decrease from 2013 to 2014.
(d) Three advantages of simple bar graph are
- It is easy to read and interpret.
- Estimates can be mad easily and accurate.
- It is easy to determine the value of each component.
5. (a) Three differences between interview and observation are
(i) Interview is a face to face technique between researcher and a respondent while Observation uses five senses of hearing, testing, smelling, seeing and touching to observe the phenomena and record what observed.
(ii) Interview can employ observed method while observation cannot employ interview method
(iii) During Interview Researcher prepares questions which he or she asks respondent in a good order and manner while during observation researcher do not prepare questions.
(b) Four merits of Library research are
· It enables the researcher to gain experience.
· It enables the researcher to decide a good method to be used..
· It enables the researcher to know what other scholar or researcher have done about what researcher investigating.
6. Five importance of survey in daily life are
(i) It helps in determine heights, angles and distance between various points on the ground.
(ii) It helps to take ground measurements for construction of various structure E.g roads, buildings e.t.c.
(iii) Survey is help in taking measurements to some areas where underground structure to be constructed E.g. pipe line, underground canal etc. .
(iv ) It helps to determine for sight intermediate and back sight of various points on the ground especial sloped land.
(v) It helps in determine areas of plots of land
7. (a) AREA OF NORTH WESTERN OF LUHOMBERO RIVER FROM GRID REFFERENCES 570963 to 644034
Calculating area using the square method
(i) Count the full square covered by area of north western of Luhombero river on a map
Full square= 30
(ii) Also count half square covered by area of north western of Luhombero river on a map and divide it by 2
Half square = 27÷2
(iii) Add Full Square and half square result obtained by divided half square by 2
(iv) Convert map area into actual area
Scale =1:50000, this means 1cm = 1/2 km
Use this scale to calculate area of north western of Luhombero river ( 1cm=1/2km)
Square both side 1cm=1/2km to get relationship between cm and km in square unit.
(1cm) square= (1/2) square
1cm square = 0.25km square
(v) Find area of one square on the map.
To find the area of one square on the map, take a ruler and measure the width multiply by itself.
Area of square = wxw
W= 2 so
Area of one square on a map = 4cm square
(vi) Find the area of north western of Luhombero River
1cm square =0.25 km square
4cm square = x
1xX= 4x 0.25
Convert 43.5 squares into kilometer square
43.5x1km square= 43.5 km square
Therefore, area of north western of Luhombero river = 43.5km square.
(b) Six symbols which have been used to interprete on a map are
· River symbol
· hill symbols
· Forest symbols
· Pond symbols
· Culvert symbol
· Scrub symbols
(c) The direction of Iputi to Ilonga is North North East (NNE) due to the obtained bearing of 35 degree.
(d) Settlement pattern of mapped area are Linear and scattered settlement pattern due to the following evidences
· Buildings are arranged in a line show linear settlement pattern
· Presence of river such as Luhombero and ponds such as Talulu pond which provide water for domestic or commercial use showlinear settlement pattern.
· Buildings are scattered show Scattered settlement pattern
(e) Five possible economic activities which might take place in the mapped area are
· Fishing due to the presence of river such as Luhembero and ponds such as Talulu, makakari pond shown on a map.
· Lumbering activities due to the presence of forests shown on a map.
· Agriculture activities due to the presence of hills such as Njigimu shown on a map
· Tourism activities due to the presence of hills such as Njigimu and forest shown on a map
· Transportation activities due to the presence of road and river shown on a map.
· Cultivation activities as shown on a map.
8. Study the following photograph and answer the questions that follow:
(a) Giving two reasons, name the type of photograph.
The type of photograph is Low Oblique photograph due to the following reasons:
- It covers a relatively small area.
- It shows both top view and front view
- The horizon is not easily seen at the backward of the photograph
- The objects have a more familiar view, comparable to viewing from the top of a high hill or tall building.
(b) Suggest the type of settlement pattern and give one factor that has influenced it.
The photograph involves two types of settlement patterns which are:
- Linear settlement pattern because of the building arranged along the road
- Nucleated Settlement pattern because the buildings are very close to each other
(c) Suggest two economic activities that might take place in the area.
Two economic activities which might take place on the photograph given are:
- Transportation activities due to the presence of road on a photograph.
- Trade activities - due to the presence of booth on a photograph, and many people in urban areas are engaging in trade
(d) Provide three advantages of photographs over map.
Three advantages of photographs over maps are:
- Photographs are very cheap to make while Maps are very expensive
- Photographs are not consumed a lot of time while Maps are consuming a lot of time.
- The scales of Photographs are variable while the scales of Maps are constant.
9. Forest refers to an extensive are of land which is mostly covered by trees of different sizes, spacing and other forms of undergrowth.
Five factors influence the distributions of forests in the world are
(i) Edaphic factors such as acidity, organic content and texture.
10. The Textile industry is primarily concerned with the design, production and distribution of yarn, cloth and clotting. The raw materials may be natural or synthetic using products of the chemical industry.
Tanzania is among in Africa and the world which manufacture textile products. Since its independence, 1961 Tanzania invested heavily in textile industry so that it could satisfy the demand of the market in terms of clothes and cotton growing in Tanzania.
Five ways of promoting textile industry in Tanzania are
(i) Improvement of power supply
(ii) Employment of new advanced machine and equipment.
(iii) Government should opening institutions offering specialized courses in textile sector.
(iv) Good enforcement of laws, rules and regulations.
(v) Good infrastructure from the texture industry.
11. Urbanization is process whereby populations move from rural to urban area, enabling cities and towns to grow. It can also be termed as the progressive increase of the number of people living in towns and cities.
Seven problems associated with rapid urbanization are
(i) Pressure on resources available example Pressure on land.
(iii) Spread of diseases
(iv) An increase in crime rate
(v) Environment degradation example Pollution.
(vi) Insufficient social services.
12. The world climate change refers to all forms of climatic inconsistently but because the climate is never static terms is more properly described as a system and all others aspects of earth’s climate.
Seven effects of climatic change in the world are
(i) The rise in temperature has led to the melting of ice in various parts of the world.
(ii) The melting of ice has led to occurrence of water in the sea and hence sea level rise.
(iii)Spread of diseases like skin cancer.
(iv) Global warming has led to the occurrence of strong storms in different parts of the worlds and kill people and destroy properties.
(v) Disappearance of some animals and plants due to the failures to adapt the abrupt in temperature.
(vi) Decline of production due to drought and desertification process which then leads to poverty and death of people.
(vi) Global warming has caused the occurrence for precipitation.