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Thursday, March 21, 2019

SOLVING GEOGRAPHY - NECTA 2009



SOLVING GEOGRAPHY - NECTA  2009

QUESTIONS & ANSWERS

QUESTIONS 






ANSWERS


1.
i
ii
iii
iv
v
vi
vii
viii
ix
x
A
B
B
A
B
A
D
A
D
C

2. 
LIST A
i
ii
iii
iv
v
LIST B
J
C
E
H
B


3. The explanations on the types of moraines. 

A moraine is any glacially formed accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris (regolith and rock) that occurs in both currently and formerly glaciated regions on Earth (i.e. a past glacial maximum), through geomorphological processes. Moraines are formed from debris previously carried along by a glacier, and normally consist of somewhat rounded particles ranging in size from large boulders to minute glacial flour.

The Types of Moraines 
          
   
         

a) A terminal moraine, also called end moraine, is a type of moraine that forms at the snout (edge) of a glacier, marking its maximum advance. At this point, debris that has accumulated by plucking and abrasion, and has been pushed by the front edge of the ice, is driven no further and instead is dumped in a heap. Because the glacier acts very much like a conveyor belt, the longer it stays in one place, the greater the amount of material that will be deposited. The moraine is left as the marking point of the terminal extent of the ice.

Terminal Moraine


b) Ground moraines often show up as rolling, strangely shaped land covered in grass or other vegetation. They don’t have the sharp ridges of other moraines. A ground moraine is made of sediment that slowly builds up directly underneath a glacier by tiny streams, or as the result of a glacier meeting hills and valleys in the natural landscape. When a glacier melts, the ground moraine underneath is exposed.


Ground Moraine

c) A lateral moraine forms along the sides of a glacier. As the glacier scrapes along, it tears off rock and soil from both sides of its path. This material is deposited as lateral moraine at the top of the glacier’s edges. Lateral moraines are usually found in matching ridges on either side of the glacier. The glacier pushes material up the sides of the valley at about the same time, so lateral moraines usually have similar heights. If a glacier melts, the lateral moraine will often remain as the high rims of a valley.

Lateral Moraine

d) A medial moraine consists of a long, narrow line or zone of debris formed when lateral moraines join at the intersection of two ice streams; the resultant moraine is in the middle of the combined glacier. It is deposited as a ridge, roughly parallel to the direction of ice movement. 

Medial Moraine





4. (i). Climatic condition of station A is Equatorial climate (tropical rain forest climate) due to the following reasons

 Climatic data has high temperature throughout the year with an average of 27.2°C.
  Mean annual rainfall of 1692.
   (ii).   The countries which experience Equatorial climatic condition in Great lakes of East Africa are Congo and Democratic Republic of  Congo


   (iii).   GRAPHICALLY REPRESENTATION OF CLIMATIC DATA FOR STATION A


 


5. (a). Research Design is the frame work of research or research design reffered as the conceptual structure within which a research is conducted.

   (b).  The following are the four (4) explanation of types of research design.

     (i). Experimental research design

           Experiments research design this is the most appropriate in controlled settings such as laboratories, it assures random assigned to groups. It aims at exploring cause and effect relationship where causes can be manipulated to produce different  kinds of effects.
     (ii). Case and field research design

Case and field research design is called ethnographic research, it is used direct observation to give a complete snapshot of a case that is being studied. It is useful when not much is known about a phenomenon and uses a few subjects.

     (iii).  Correlation research design (Prospective)

Correlation research design is the types of research design aimed at exploring relationships to make predictions, it is uses one set of subjects with two or more variables for each.

     (iv). Survey research design
Survey research design is the types of research design which describe and explain conditions of the present by using many subjectives and questionnaire to fully describe a phenomenon, also is referred as descriptive research.


6. (a).  Survey is the scientific and systematic measure of distance , height(altitude)  and angles between various points on the ground. Or Survey is the process of observing and measuring in order to determine distance, position , boundaries and elevation of physical features on the land.

    . Types of survey I would like to advise Mary to use to produce contour map of Dar es salaam is Topographical survey because it used to measure contour map on the land.
   (b).Other significance of topographical survey apart from producing contour map is to measure and plot physical features in their horizontal and vertical position.


7. (a).   AREA OF FOREST

calculating area using the square method
         (i) Count the full square covered by Forest on a map
                    Full square= 23

          (ii) Also count half square covered by Forest on a map and divide it by 2 
                        Half square =   44÷2
                         Half square=22
          
          (iii) Add full square and half square result  obtained by divided half square by 2
                        23+22=45 square.
       
          (iv) Convert map area into actual area
                         Scale =1:50000, this means 1cm = 1/2 km 

                    Use this scale to calculate area of Forest ( 1cm=1/2km)
                                                           Square both side 1cm=1/2km to get relationship between cm and km in square unit.      
             
                        (1cm) square= (1/2) square
                        1cm square = 0.25km square

           (v) find area of one square on the map.
                                    To find the area of one square on the map, take a rule and measure the width multiply by itself.
                                Area of square = wxw 
                                      W= 2 so  
                                         A= 2x2
                                        Area of one square on a map = 4cmsquare
            (vi) find the area of Forest
                  1cm square =0.25 km square
                  4cm square = x
                              Cross multiplication
                           1xX= 4x 0.25
                               X= 1kmsquare
                  Convert 45 square into kilometre square
                                 45x1km square= 49 km square

  Therefore Area of Forest = 45km square.

  (b).  To measure the length  of the  River Ipwizi using a sheet of paper.

               By using a piece of paper the map distance of River Ipwizi is20.2 cm

                  Scale on map = 1:50000
            Change. 1:50000  into kilometers.

            1km  = 100000cm
            X       = 50000cm
     100000x = 50000x1
                  x = 50000/100000
                  x =1/2 km (one a half)

So.   1Cm = 1/2 km
          20.2= X
          X=20.2x 1/2
         X= 10.1 km
Therefore the length of River Ipwizi  in km from grid reference 150508 to 125435 is 10.1km   

  (c) The bearing of Tete village (grid reference 127506) from Ifwekenye village (grid reference 160460) is 330°NNW.

  (d).  Main physical features found in this area are 

       (i).  Plain due to the area that show contours are far apart.

       (ii). Hills- hills shown at 192473, 252466, 243476, 239449 grid refetences

       (iii). Valley- valley shown at grid references 170490, 166507.

       (iv).  Escarpment - escarpments shown at grid references 270442, 173513.

   (e). The following are the main activities shown on a map

        (i).   Fishing due to the presence of Ipwizi river on a map

        (ii).   Farming due to the presence of scattered cultivation on a map

        (iii).  Lumbering due to the presence of forest on a map

        ( iv). Pastoralism due to the presence of scrubs on a map

         (v).   Irrigation due to the presence of Ipwizi rivet on a map.


8. Study the photograph provided, then answer the questions that follow:


a) What type of photograph is this? Give reasons for your answer  
    Ground or Horizontal Photograph due to the following reasons:  
    - It shows the side or front view of the image  
    - The foreground objects look larger than the middle and background objects   
    - The horizon is easily seen from the background of the object              

b) With evidence suggest the type of climate of the place where this photograph was taken
    Tropical or Savannah Climate because of scattered tall trees with small leaves to retain water during the dry season

c) What kind of activity is taking place in the area?  
    Deforestation

d) What will happen if the activity in (c) above takes place in your local environment? 
    The impact of deforestation (cutting down of trees) in the local areas is 
    - Desertification, due to clearance of trees 
    - Loss of biodiversity, both plants and animals
    - Drought, due to destruction of trees which protect water sources 

   - Soil erosiondue to destruction of trees and grasses which protect and cover the  land                    


9. (a).  Aswan High dam is the dam across Nile River in Egypt which is construction completed on July July  21, 1970. It is located in Aswan in Egypt  and utilizes the power of the river for a variety of social and economic causes.

              The following are the aims of constructing the Aswan High dam was

        (i). Production of hydro- electric power For both domestic and industrial uses.

        (ii). Accelerate tourism activities to the Aswan high dam.

        (iii).  Fishing and fishing industries also have been developed

        (iv.  Control of floods near and along the Aswan dam.

        (v).  Navigation has been improved.
  

  (b). Kondoa District is one of the seven districts of the Dodoma Region of Tanzania. It is bordered to the north by Manyara Region, and to the south by Chemba District. Its district capital is the town of Kondoa.

                   The following are the benefit to the people If the dam were constructed at Kondoa

         (i).   Creation of employment opportunity

         (ii).   Development of fishing activities

         (iii).  Accelerate tourism activities

         (iv).  Flood control near or along Kondoa 

         (v).   For irrigation purpose
         


10. Agriculture is the practice of farming which involves crop production and livestock rearing over the earth's surface.

      Over the last twenty five years, China has made huge progress in meeting its agricultural policy objectives: agricultural production has risen sharply, rural industries have absorbed a large part of farm labor, poverty has fallen dramatically, and the level and quality of food consumption has improved significantly.

      Government policy made agriculture achievements in China by applied the following 
         (i) Adoption of green revolutionary by the the government

         (ii)  Government involvement in agriculture activities .

         (iii). Development of infrastructure  i.e transport and communication

         (iv). Pests and diseases control.

         (v).  Chinese spirit of cooperation and hard work.

         (vi). High population size in China

         (vii) Good environment conservation measure

         (viii). Availability of social services. 



11. Population refer to the number of people, animals and plants (living things) occupying a certain
area.

      Population change is the growth or decline in population i.e increase or decrease population can change by positive growth and negative growth.

      The African Great Lakes are a series of lakes constituting the part of the Rift Valley lakes in and around the East African Rift.They include Lake Victoria, the second-largest fresh water lake in the world by area, and Lake Tanganyika, the world's second-largest freshwater lake by volume and depth.

               The following are the causes of population causes in the great lake of East Africa.
           (i). Immigration

           (ii) emigration

           (iii). Fertility rate

           (iv). Mortality rate

           (v).  Good climatic conditions.

           (vi)  fishing activities around great lake in East Africa.



12.        Aquatic resources refers to all resources found in the body of water example all organisms live in water such as fishes etc.

               The following are the five (5) ways on how to overcome to lose their aquatic resources.

           (i). Encouraging the use of proper fishing methods

           (ii). Provision of education about importance of aquatic resources

           (iii). Support organization working on protecting aquatic resources.

           (iv). To discourage water pollution around lakes and rivers.

           (v).  Introduction of water recycling technology.


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