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Thursday, March 21, 2019


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Schemes of Work 2024

Kenya Notes








3 (a) The meaning of Marine Erosion

Marine Erosion is the action of the sea on coastal landforms.

b) The processes which are involved in marine erosion:

There are four main processes of erosion along the coast. These are hydraulic action, corrasion, abrasion, attrition and solution.

i) Hydraulic action – this process involves the force of water against the coast. The waves enter cracks (faults) in the coastline and compress their air within the crack. When the wave retreats the air in the crack expands quickly, causing a minor explosion (cavitation)

Hydraulic Action

ii) Abrasion (corrasion) – this is a sand papering effect of pebbles grinding over a rocky platform, often causing it to become smooth.


iii) Attrition – This is where rock fragments carried by the sea knock against one another, causing them to become smaller and more rounded.


iv) Solution (corrosion) – Some rocks are vulnerable to being dissolved by sea water. This is particularly true of limestone and chalk, which form cliffs in many parts of the UK.

4. (a) To draw a divided circle to represent the data.

         First step  add all number of motor vehicles.
         430+192+108+70= 800
         Second step: change motor vehicle data into degree.

         Jeep: (430/800)×360°=193.5°
         Jeep= 193.5°

         Benz: (192/800)×360°=86.4°
         Benz= 86.4°

         BMW: (180/800)×360°=31.5°

         Rimoussene (70/800)×360°=31.5°
         Rimoussene = 31.5°

 Third step: draw Divided circle using above data


5. Formulation hypothesis is an Assumption used on what one expects to find out in the fields. Research hypothesis is usually tested before the study begins.
     The following are the problems faced in hypothesis formulation.

   (i) Lack of ability to utilize theoriticaly framework

   (ii) Absence of clear theoriticaly frame work.

   (iii). Bias

   (iv). Insufficient knowledge of a problem

   (v).  Unclear hypothesis.

6. Chain Survey refers to the  surveying method in which linear measurements of an area are taken. Chain survey referred as tape survey.
         The following are the merits and demerits of simple chain survey.


    (i). It is suitable for surveying flat surface on the Earth’s surface, for example a school compound

   (ii). It can be red easily and quickly

   (iii) It is the simplest method of surveying through the old method

   (iv) It is suitable for surveying clear areas

   (v). It can be easily repaired or rectified in the field

   (vi) It tends not to attract attention.


   (i). They become longer or shorter due to continuous use

   (ii). It is not suitable for surveying large areas

   (iii). More difficult areas cannot be chain surveyed

   (iv). Errors may be encountered due to the use of many chains and other reasons

   (v). It is time consuming

   (vi). They are heavy and take too much time to open or fold

   (vii). It is a slow method of surveying

   (vii). It is the oldest method of surveying

7(a).  The possible reasons for the uneven population distribution in the area are

    (i).   Roads such as road running from Lindi to mchinga.

    (ii).  Agriculture activities as seen in grid references 770125

    (iii). Urban settlements example at grid references 798190 nucleated settlement is seen at likonga town.

   (b).  To measure the distance of the Lindi-Nachingwea all weather road using a sheet of paper.
            By using a piece of paper the map distance of railway is 27.7cm.

                  Scale on map = 1:50000
            Change. 1:50000 into kilometres.

            1km  = 100000cm
             X       = 50000cm
      100000x = 50000x1
                    x = 50000/100000
                    x =1/2 km (one a half)

So.          1Cm = 1/2 km
                 27.7= X

                      X=27.7x 1/2

                       X= 13.85km

  Therefore length of Lindi-Nachingwea all weather road is 13.85 km

   (c). Types of climate experienced in this area is savannah/tropical climate Because of

     (i).  Latitude, which lie between  9°45' to 39°45'

     (ii). Vegetation such as shrubs.

     (iii)  Crops e.g coffee and sugar.


calculating area using the square method

     (i) Count the full square covered by forest on a map
                    Full square= 0

     (ii) Also count half square covered by forest on a map and divide it by 2 

                        Half square =   29÷2
                         Half square=14.5
    (iii) Add full square and half square result  obtained by divided half square by 2
    (iv) Convert map area into actual area
                        Scale =1:50000, this means 1cm = 1/2 km 

           Use this scale to calculate area covered by forest ( 1cm=1/2km)

           Square both side 1cm=1/2km to get relationship between cm and km in square unit.                   
                        (1cm) square= (1/2) square
                          1cm square = 0.25km square

    (v) find area of one square on the map.

          To find the area of one square on the map, take a rule and measure the width multiply by itself.

                                Area of square = wxw
                                      W= 2 so 
                                         A= 2x2

          Area of one square on a map = 4cmsquare

   (vi) find the area of lake Tanganyika

                  1cm square =0.25 km square
                  4cm square = x

                              Cross multiplication

                           1xX= 4x 0.25
                               X= 1kmsquare

                  Convert 14.5 square into kilometre square

                                 14.5x1km square= 14.5km square

  Therefore Area covered by forest south of  grid line 160 = 14.5km square.

8. Carefully study the photograph provided below and then answers the questions that follow:

a) Name the crop shown in the photograph  

b) Mention the natural conditions which favour the growth of the crop  
    - Well drained soils 
    - Slight rainfall ranging between 600mm to 1300mm
    - High temperature ranging between 27°cto 30°c     
    - Fertile soil

c) Tanzania is very famous in growing the crop mentioned in (a) above. Name the regions of Tanzania which grow the crop at commercial level    
    - Morogoro   
    - Tanga
    - Kilimanjaro

d) With concrete evidence, explain the scale of production as shown on the photograph  

Large scale production because of the following reasons:  
1. The farm or plantation  has covered Large Area    
2. Use of Mechanized Methods due to the presence of road which allows the movement of modern machines like tractors and other transport vehicles     
3. Absence of people’ settlement nearby the plantation which means that there is high use of chemicals

9. Transport means the movements of goods, people and services from one place to another.

    Communication is the imparting or exchanging of information or news. It is the means of connection between people or places in particular.

     Transport and communication are inevitable in developing countries due to the following significance of transportation.

     (i) Transportation encourage the development of industry through the supply of raw materials and transportation of manufactured goods to the markets or consumer.

     (ii). Transportation create employment opportunity for example some people are employed as drivers, station master etc.

     (iii). Transportation facilitate the spread of technology in the country.

     (iv).  Transportation enhances the accessibility of places.

     (v).   Transportation lead to the promotion of trade in the world

     (vi). Transportation encourage the development of tourism in the country.

     (vii). Transportation can make goods available where they are demanded.

10. Development refer to process of changing one stage to another stage and every stage become more advance than previous one.
Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy.

        Industrial development refers to the increase of production of goods or services than previous production of goods or services.

       The following are the reasons for the low of industrial development in Sub -Saharan Africa.

     (i). Low technology used in industries.

     (ii). Low capital to be invested in industries.

     (iii). Industrial barrier imposed in form of taxes limit industrial development.

     (iv). Stiff competition from outside by developed countries.

     (v).  Poor infrastructure in developing countries example poor transport and communication facilities

     (vi). Problems of markets both local and internationally .

11. Forestry is all activities related to the development ( in case of man planted forest), development and exploitation of forests.

       Forest refers to an extensive area of land which is mostly covered by trees of different sizes and species. Or a forest is a dense growth of trees, plants and undergrowth covering a large area of land.       
The followings are the best ways which can ensure a sustainable use of forestry resources.

    (i).  Reforestation or re planting of trees both local and exotic species in the depleted areas.

    (ii). The opening of new forest estates

    (iii). Establishment of game and forest reserves where the cutting of trees or hunting is completely restricted.

    (iv). Educating the people importance of sustainable use of forestry resources.

    (v).  The government should make sure that the population control is encouraged in order to reduce over population which is dangerous to forestry resources.

   (vi). Use of other alternative energy resources e.g solar energy.

12. Agriculture is the branch of science which deals with crop cultivation and animal keeping. It is categorized as a primary activity since it involves the production of raw materials that can be used by other industries.

     Small scale agriculture is the type of agriculture (crop cultivation) where a farmer owns a piece of land covers less than 5 hectares.

      The following are the effects of rapid population growth to the small scale agriculture.

   (i)  rapid population reduces the average size of land,

   (ii) Over exploitation

   (iii) It reduced soil fertility.

   (iv)  soil erosion

   (v).  Increase in conflicts on the land

   (vi). Decrease in productivity