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Tuesday, May 15, 2018


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We have:
Notes A and Notes B

Notes A

To view the Notes and Books for Form Three, click the following links below: 

                  (b) BOOKS OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY

                  (b) BOOKS OF MAP READING





7. Ngorongoro Crater

Situated in Tanzania, the Ngorongoro Crater is the world’s largest inactive, intact, and unfilled volcanic caldera and covers an area of 100 square miles (260 square kilometers). Although it is called a crater, it is, more precisely, a caldera formed after a massive volcano exploded and collapsed two million years ago.

The bowl of the crater is rich with life, and like many African attractions, the Ngorongoro Crater is home to an abundance of wildlife, including hippopotamuses, hyenas, leopards, lions, African buffalo, wildebeests, giraffes, and zebras, to name a few. Of note is the presence of the critically endangered black rhino.


8. The Namib

This coastal desert covers parts of three Southern African countries, from north to south: Angola, Namibia (home to the greatest portion of the desert), and South Africa. Its name, which has its origin in the Nama language, loosely translates to “an area where there is nothing.” Yet “nothing” is not an entirely true description of some parts of the desert. The Namib’s vast expanse across different regions means that the scenery is diverse and not what one might consider to be typical of a desert. The desert’s immediate coastal area derives moisture from the near-constant level of fog, allowing succulent shrubs to thrive there. Farther inland there are random mountains. Elsewhere there are vast amounts of sand, dunes, gravel plains, and rock formations, which, depending on the region, are dotted with bushes, grasses, or trees. The Namib’s varying regions are also home to a variety of wildlife, including beetles, snakes, birds, antelope, and elephants.


9. Okavango Delta, Botswana

Deep in the Kalahari Desert of northern Botswana lies the Okavango Delta, a lush water world in the midst of arid southern Africa. This unique wetland ecosystem spreads over 15,000 sq km (5,791 sq miles), creating the largest inland delta in the world.

The Okavango Delta is created as the Okavango River fans out upon reaching the sands of the Kalahari, creating a maze of reed-lined waterways and verdant islands. The river is one of the few rivers in the world that do not flow into a sea or ocean, and one of the largest endorheic deltas in the world. Instead of emptying into an ocean or sea, the river drains onto open land. The delta transforms seasonally, flooding in winter then drying in summer, supporting a diversity of habitats. This range of ecosystems supports an incredible array of wildlife, from elephants, hippos and big cats to varied birdlife. The tourist activities include vehicle safaris, bushwalks, helicopter trips and camping under the delta’s starry night skies.





9. Biodiversity conservation

Biodiversity is vital for all life on Earth, and forests are vibrant ecosystems that support a wide array of plant and animal species. Humans use at least 40,000 different species of plants and animals daily for food, shelter, clothing, and medicinal needs. Reforestation plays a pivotal role in preserving and restoring biodiversity. By planting a diverse range of tree species, we create habitats for various plants, insects, birds, and mammals, fostering a balanced and resilient ecosystem. Researchers have discovered that up to 2.3 million living species can depend on a single tree!


10. Cooling Down the Streets

Every year we listen to the shocking global warming news. For instance, the average temperature in Los Angeles has risen by 6F in 50 years, and the average global temperature grew by 1.4 F. This happens as tree coverage declines. Removing trees and replacing them with heat absorbing asphalt roads and buildings makes cities much warmer. Trees are cooling cities by up to 10 F by providing shade and releasing water.


11. Practical & Commercial Value

Trees have supported and sustained life throughout our existence. They have a wide variety of practical and commercial uses. Wood was the very first fuel, and is still used for cooking and heating by about half of the world’s population. Trees provide timber for building construction, furniture manufacture, tools, sporting equipment, and thousands of household items. Wood pulp is used to make paper.

We are all aware of apples, oranges and the countless other fruits and nuts provided by trees, as well as the tasty syrup of North American sugar maples. But did you know the bark of some trees can be made into cork and is a source of chemicals and medicines? Quinine and aspirin are both made from bark extracts. The inner bark of some trees contains latex, the main ingredient of rubber. How many more uses can you name?


12. Purifying Air

Have you ever felt that feeling of cleaner air in the woods or by the seaside? Well, you were right because it is well known that trees do purify the air. They absorb pollutant gases such as nitrogen oxides, ozone, ammonia, sulphur dioxide. Trees also absorb odors and act as a filter as little particulates get trapped in leaves. A mature acre of trees can yearly provide oxygen for 18 people.