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Tuesday, May 15, 2018

GEOGRAPHY NOTES FOR FORM TWO - ALL TOPICS

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GEOGRAPHY NOTES FOR FORM TWO

We have:
Notes A and Notes B

Notes A

To view the Notes for Form Two, click the following links below: 

TOPIC 1 - HUMAN ACTIVITIES

TOPIC 2 - AGRICULTURE

TOPIC 3 - WATER MANAGEMENT FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

TOPIC 4 - SUSTAINABLE USE OF FOREST RESOURCES

TOPIC 5 - SUSTAINABLE MINING

TOPIC 6 - TOURISM

TOPIC 7 - MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

TOPIC 8 - POWER ENERGY AND RESOURCES

TOPIC 9 - TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION





AMAZING GEOGRAPHICAL PLACES IN AFRICA - PART 2

 

4. The Nile

At 4,132 miles (6,650 kilometers) long, the Nile is the longest river in the world and travels through many African countries. Rising from several places south of the equator, it flows north and drains into the Mediterranean Sea. The Egyptians referred to the river as Ar or Aur from the Coptic language meaning “black” in reference to the black sediment the river leaves behind after flooding. In Ancient Egyptian, the black sediment gave its name to the Egyptian Kingdom, which they called “Kemet” (kem meaning “black”).

As a river that flows from south to north, it crosses many climatic zones. The waters are home to huge numbers of animals, such as crocodiles, hippopotamuses, and hundreds of bird species. In the south, tropical rainforest gives way to grassland before encountering the scorching desert of the Sahara.

 

5. The great migration, Tanzania

One of the most sought-after experiences for wildlife and nature enthusiasts, the Great Migration is the ever-moving circular migration of over a million animals across the Serengeti-Mara ecosystem. The constant movement of columns of wildebeest, joined by a host of companions, follow an age-old route in search of grazing and water. After calving in the southern part of Tanzania's Serengeti near the Ngorongoro Conservation Area, the animals journey through the Serengeti up and around in a clockwise direction towards the Masai Mara in Kenya, before returning once again near the end of the year. Along the way, high drama is always present, as thousands of animals are taken by predators and thousands more are born, replenishing the numbers and sustaining the circle of life.

 

6. Mountain gorillas, Rwanda

A close encounter with the mountain gorillas of the Rwandan rainforest will stay with you for a lifetime. Various operators run tours tracking silverbacks and their troupes in the dense forest.

At an elevation of more than 6,000 feet, the Nyungwe National Park is an isolated region, covering more than 386 square miles across southwest Rwanda. Tourists can meet a vast range of primates and also traverse East Africa’s highest canopy.


 

BENEFITS OF PLANTING TREES - PART 2


5. Our health

Trees help to improve air quality by intercepting and trapping dust and other pollutants from the air. The shade of trees also provides a useful barrier to harmful ultra-violet radiation from the sun.

But it’s not just our physical health that benefits, our mental health does too. When surrounded by trees or taking part in nature-based activities, stress and depression levels can be significantly reduced.

 

6. Soil protection and restoration

Healthy soil is the foundation for sustainable agriculture and thriving ecosystems. Reforestation helps protect and restore soil health by preventing erosion and improving its structure. The extensive root systems of trees bind the soil, reducing the risk of landslides and soil degradation.

As trees shed leaves and organic matter, they enrich the soil with nutrients, promoting fertility and supporting plant growth. Moreover, tree canopies shield the ground from heavy rainfall and harsh weather.

 

7. Personal & Spiritual Value

The main reason we like trees is because they are both beautiful and majestic. No two are alike. Different species display a seemingly endless variety of shapes, forms, textures and vibrant colours. Even individual trees vary their appearance throughout the course of the year as the seasons change. The strength, long lifespan and regal stature of trees give them a monument-like quality. Most of us react to the presence of trees with a pleasant, relaxed, comfortable feeling. In fact, many people plant trees as living memorials of life-changing events.

 

8. Water

Trees play a key role in capturing rainwater and reducing the risk of natural disasters like floods and landslides. Their intricate root systems act like filters, removing pollutants and slowing down the water’s absorption into the soil. This process prevents harmful waterslide erosion and reduces the risk of over-saturation and flooding. According to the UN Food and Agriculture Association, a mature evergreen tree can intercept more than 15,000 litres of water every year.




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