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Friday, January 10, 2020


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Elements of Literature

There are two elements of literature these are form and content.
These element are sometimes called Aspect of literature, analysis of literature is done through the two element form and content.
Note: Form and content are said to be the cup and tea in literature, so we can separate each term to complete a work of literature
  • In other words form and content are two side of the same coin
  • But normally form determines content
What is form?
Form is simply the super structure of the literary work or Is the upper layer of literature work which determine the content in the literary work site. It determine its beautifulness
Element of form
Form is made up with the following element:
  1. Title
  2. Setting
  3. Plot
  4. Style
  5. Character and characterization
  6. Language use
These elements used to analyze form in a literature work
Refer to the literary heading that verifies the names of literary work e.g.
  • a) In play
  • b) In poetry
  • c) In novel
The title carries the general meaning of the literary work.
The title of the literary work can be used
  1. Symbolically
  2. Metaphorical title
  3. Ironically title
Example of title books in literature work
  1. House boy
  2. Secret lives
  3. Girls at war
  4. House boy
  5. The lion and jewel
  6. Three solid stones
  7. The trial of brother Jero etc
2. Setting
Refers to the place and time where literary event are done or present
This means, setting include two things:
  1. Place
  2. Time
Place refers to area or the point where the literary events are conducted.
Literarily place can be
  1. In urban area
  2. In rural area
  3. In hospital etc
Time refers to the period when the literary event are taken i.e. period –season /age
  1. During colonial era
  2. During primitive
  3. During irone age
  4. During pre–colonial era
  • The setting for the combine written by Amadi E is said it was written during colonial era.
Ways to determine the setting
The following are ways of determine the setting of literary work;
  1. By using the name of the character E.g. surnames are mostly used example Brother Nyoka, Father Kafupi both names are found in the book of wreath of father Mayer
  2. Imaginative setting is asserting created on people mind example kinjekitile, kusadikika
Note: Setting is a setting which directly a real event
  1. a walk in the night
  2. the government inspector
3. Plot
What is a plot?
The general arrangement of literary events or is the flow arrangement of the literary event example how the literacy event flow.
Types of plot
There are two major plots in plot which are:
  1. Chronological plot
  2. Unchronological plot
  • Refers to the straight forward arrangement of events in a literary work.i.e. the event are arranged in series from the begin to the end.
  • Ascending order arrangement goes from chapter 1, chapter 2, chapter 3 to the end.
  • This plot is sometimes called straight forward
  • Refers to un-straight forward arrangement of the literary event in literature.This means events are neither in ascending nor descending order.
  • E.g. Event are mixed up chapter 3, chapter2, chapter 4, chapter 1 to the end
Is a literary technique used to contract the literary work.
  • Example the cover style, the title style, the front size
Types of style
There are three types of style;
  1. monologue style
  2. dialogue style
  3. poetic style
Monologue style
Is a style that in which one person speaks in the literary work in most cases? The speaker may be author of the character sometimes is called Narrative style.
Note: Narrative monologue style is commonly used in novel and short stories
Dialogue style
Is a style in which two people speaker by a chance on the issue. It is sometimes called conversational styles
Notes: Dialogue or conversation style is commonly used in play/drama
Poetic style
Is a styles in which a literary work are told in form of verse and stanza, this types of style it common in poetry
The following are other styles in a literary work;
  1. A play within a play
  2. Flash back
  3. Letter styled
  4. Phone style
  5. Code switching style
5. Character and characterization
a) Characters
  • Characters in written literature are only human being
  • Character in literature are even most importance because it through them were different action are derived from.
  • the actions portray the messages
  • thus no characters no action and no actions no messages is portrayed
Example of characters in literature in English;
  • Sidi, Sadiku, Baroka, Kalisia, Sentry
Types of characters
There are two major types of characters
  • Main character: These are characters that exist from the beginning of a story to Almost the end i.e. the life of main characters is seen from the beginning to the end. Example Toundi, Onduoa, Father Gilbert, Sadiku
  • Minor characters: These are characters that don’t exist from the beginning to the end, they normally exist from some chapters or acts and disappear.Minor characters are attached to the main characters.They carry minor themes. Example Lakunle, Okiki, Member of Parliament
The following are form of characters:
  1. Protagonist characters: This Is a character that the society is required to learn a lot from him/her. This is characterized by many goods acts than bad once. For example women, fighting of colonialism, fighting against drug abuse, fighting against corruption, fighting against all kind of exploitation. Mostly, a protagonist character is the main characters
  2. Antagonist characters:This Is a character that is mostly against the protagonist characters?Antagonist characters is normally characterized by bad acts in most cases. Is the character that the audience (society) hate much his/her action and social appearance is cruel and brutal by nature.
  3. Round characters:Is a character who rotates on either bad or good acts in all his/her life. This character are not well classified to their philosophy or stands
  4. Developing character:They are characters who keeps on changing from bad or good to good or bad E.g. due to peer pressure influence, this character is sometime called dynamic
  5. Dramatic characters: Is a character in action that normally carries comic that cause people to laugh
  6. Flat characters: Is a character who adopt only a part or side acts of the literary , he/she may see the effects but want to solve them by being there.
  7. Static characters:Is a characters whose doesn’t change his/her behavior regardless it is good or bad
  8. Expository character:Is a character who is narrated by the another or other character
These are figurative expression used to add the artistic meaning to the literary work or Are literary creative expressions used in literary works, there are more than 200 figures of speech, and some examples of figure of speech are
  1. Anaphora/repetition: Is the repetition of word or phrases of some content or theme. Anaphora aims to give an emphasis, anaphora is some time called repetition. Example Come here! Come here! Come here!, No! No! No!, Ok! Ok! Ok!
  2. Simile:A stated comparison ( usually formed with like or as between two fundamentally dissimilar things that have certain qualities in common example reboot was white as a sheet after he walked out of the horror movies or A state comparison ( usually formed with like or as between two fundamentally dissimilar things that have certain qualities in common example Robert was white as a sheet after he walked out of the horror movie
  3. Onomatopoeia: The use of words that imitate the sound associated with the object or actions they refers to example the clap of thunder went bang and scared my poor dog.
  4. Oxymoron: A figure of speech in which incongruous or contradictory term appear side by side e.g. I am graceful as a bull in a china shop when I dance.
  5. Metaphor: An implied comparison between dissimilar things that have something in common examples all the worlds as a stage.