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Monday, May 6, 2019

ENGLISH: FORM FIVE - WORD FORMATION

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WORD FORMATION

In linguisticsword formation is the creation of a new word. Word formation is sometimes contrasted with semantic change, which is a change in a single word's meaning. The boundary between word formation and semantic change can be difficult to define: a new use of an old word can be seen as a new word derived from an old one and identical to it in form. 

Word Formation tries to explain the processes through which we can create new word forms. We’ve already seen some of these at work when we looked at morphemes and word classes, but now we’ll investigate them a little more closely, initially using exploratory methods again, rather than just looking at long lists of morphemes and listing their functions.

This is the field or branch of morphology which studies different principles or processes which govern the conservation or formation of words in a particular language. I.e. it refers to the processes by which new words are formed or built in a particular language.
This process involves morphological processes (then formation of words through combinations of morphemes together with other different processes.
The process of word formation may involve the process whereby roots or stems received inflectional or derivational element (affixes) in order to form the new words.
NB: The roots, stems inflectional or derivational elements are all technique termed as morphemes

                            


MORPHOLOGY

This is a component of grammar (sub branch) of linguistics which deals with the study of morphemes and their difference forms (Allomorphs) and how these units combine together in the formation of words. It also studies the structure and arrangement of words in the dictionary i.e. Morphology is the study of word formation and dictionary use.

DEFINITIONS OF KEY  WORDS

1. Morpheme
This is the smallest grammatical or lexical unit in the structure of a language which may form a word or part of a word
E.g. nation - national 
                     International  
                     Internationally
                      Nationalization
        Kind -  kindness
                   Unkind
                   Unkindness
        Take - takes
                   Taken
                   Taking
        Discuss -  discussion
              Discussions
        A morpheme may represent the lexical meaning or grammatical function.

2. Word
This is the minimal or smallest unit in the structure of a sentence in any language which may constitute on utterance or sentence on its own.
The word is usually formed by either one or several morphemes out it is the smallest unit in the sentence structure.
E.g. Yesterday I met him at Tabata- 6 words
        We can words in a sentence and morphemes in a word

3. Stem
Is that part of a word that is in existence before any inflectional affixes have been added. 
Or, Is that part of the word that inflectional affixes can be attached to.
For example:
- "cat" can take inflectional morpheme-'S'
- "Worker" can take inflectional morpheme-'S'
- "Winne" can take inflectional morpheme-'S'
- "Short" can take inflectional morpheme-'er'
- "friendship" can take inflectional morpheme-'S'  

NB:
- A stem is a root or roots of the word together with any derivation affixes to which inflectional affixes are added.
- A stem consists minimally of a root but may be analyzable word into a root plus derivation morphemes 

4. Base 
Is any unit whatsoever to which affixes of any kind can be added.
For example; in the word "playful"
'play' is a root and also a base
In the word 'playfulness' the root is still "play" but the base is 'playful' 
- "Instruct" is the base for forming instruction, instructor and re-instruct 
NB: All roots can be bases but not all bases are roots.

TASK
1. Write ten words which you think are bases but they are not roots
2. Identify the inflectional affixes, derivational affixes, roots, base and stems in the following words faiths, faithfully, unfaithful, faithfulness, bookshops, window-cleaners, hardships

5. Root
This is a basic part of a word which normally carries lexical meaning corresponding to the concept, object or idea and which cannot be split into further parts
Roots in many languages may also be joined to other roots or take affixes or combing forms
E.g. Man   manly,  house hold, big
      6. Affix
This is a morpheme, usually grammatical which is attached to another morpheme (stem) in the formation of a new word which may change the meaning, grammatical category or grammatical form of the stem.
E.g. Beautiful   Mismanagement Disconnect
The affix maybe added either before, with or after the stem thus are three types of affixes.

i.    Prefix
This is the affix which is added before the stem
E.g.   Disconnect
          Illogical
          Unhappy
Empower
ii.   Infix
This is the affix that is added within the stem. Thus type of affix is rare to be found in English words
E.g. meno   -  meino
iii.  Suffix
This is the affix that is added after the stem.
                        E.g.  Mismanagement
                                Beautiful
                                Dismissal
                                Kingdom

7.      Allomorph
This refers to any of the difference forms of the same morpheme root they all represent the past participle (grammatical function)

       
            



CLASSIFICATION OF MORPHEMES

The morphemes are classified into several categories basing on several factor such as:-
Occurrence, meaning and function

There are two major types of morphemes
(i)   Free morpheme
This is the morpheme that can stand or occur alone (on its own) as a separate word in the structure of a sentences in any language.
The free morpheme includes all parts of speech i.e. Nouns, Verbs, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, interjections, articles
                             

The free morpheme is further divided into two categories
(a) Lexical morpheme
This is the type of frees morpheme which occurs on its own and carries a content of the message being conveyed i.e. It is the free morpheme which represents the actual lexical meaning of the concept, idea, object or action.
The lexical morphemes include the major word classes such as Noun, verbs (main verb), adjective and adverb.
E.g.      House
             Attend
             Large
            Tomorrow
(b)  Functional morpheme / grammatical morpheme
This is the free morpheme which can stand alone as a separate word in a sentence but does not represent the actual lexical meaning of the concept, idea, object or action – it has little meaning when used alone and thus it usually occurs together with the lexical morpheme in order to give the lexical meaning
The functional morphemes includes the minor word classes such as pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, interjections and articles, auxiliary verbs etc

                         

(ii)   Bound morpheme
This is the morpheme which can not normally stand alone as a separate word in the sentence structure as it is attached to another morpheme (lexical) free morpheme in the formation of the new word.
The Bound morpheme represents grammatical function such as word category tense aspect, person, number, participle, comparison etc.
Example ment, ism represents a noun, aly represent.
Adverb
Tense – ed, d, voice, number
Person – es
Aspect – ing – progressive aspect
Comparison – er, est

The Bound morpheme is farther divided in to two categories.
(a)   Derivation morpheme
This is the bound morpheme which is used to form or make new words with different meanings and grammatical categories or class from the stem i.e. It is the morpheme which when added to the stem it changes the meaning and / or the word class of grammatical category of stem/ base Example unhappy, illogical, impossible, empower
National – noun to adjective
Derivation morpheme may occur either before or after or both before and after the stem in the formation of the new words i.e. they may occur either as prefixes or affixes example management, mismanage, mismanagement.
The derivation morpheme may also change the sub classification of the same word class such as concrete noun into abstract noun e.g. Kingdom, friendship, leadership, membership
Deviation morphemes are also used as indicators of word category example simplicity, modernize dare indicators of verb by indicator of adverbs.

(b)  Inflectional morpheme
This is the type of bound morpheme which is not used to produce or form different words with different meaning but rather it is used to change grammatical form of the state i.e. Inflectional morpheme doesn’t change the meaning or word class but it only changes grammatical form of the sentence which represent grammatical function such as to mark the verb for tense aspect, participle voice etc
Example finished, Lorries, oxen
Past tense – finished
Past participle – proven
Number – Lorries, oxen, children

Inflectional morpheme also marks nouns and number.
They mark adverb and adjectives for comparison
E.g. smaller, smallest
The inflectional morpheme occur only after the stem (they are suffix)  

                    
FUNCTION OF MORPHEMES

The morphemes are analyzed as having three major functions that are directly linked with their types.

The following are the functions of morphemes:-

1. The morpheme (free morphemes) are used to form the bases or roots of the words i.e. a single free morpheme, lexical or functional forms the base or root of a word. 
This function is therefore called Base – form function
E.g. Tree, after, along

2. The morphemes (derivation bound morphemes) are used to change the lexical meaning and / or the grammatical category of the stem. 
This function is called derivation function
E.g. Disunity, illegal, beautiful, quickly, modernize

3. The morphemes (inflectional morphemes) are used to change the grammatical form or function of the stem without changing the meaning or word class.
This function is known as inflectional function
E.g. goes, tallest

TASK
Read the following passage and answer the following question 

A thick vegetation cover,  such as tropical forests ,   acts as protection  against physical weathering and also helps to slow the  removal   of the  weathered layer  in deserts and  high mountains the absence of the vegetation   accelerates the rate of weathering plants and animals, however,   play a significant part in rock destruction, notably  by  chemical decomposition through the action of  organic acidic solution the acids develop  from water percolation through party decayed vegetation and animal matter.

Question
1. Identify
I. 7 lexical  morphemes
II. 5 derivation  morphemes
III. 2 inflectional morphemes




PROCESSES OF WORD FORMATION IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE

The formation of words in English language is archived in several processes or ways. These processes fall into two major categories
(i)   The major processes which includes affixation compounding, Conversion and reduplication.
(ii) The minor processes which includes clipping Blending, Acronym, Borrowing, Back formation, Onomatopoeia, Coining/ coinage

I)   The major processes of word formation

(a) AFFIXATION

The process of word formation whereby new words are formed by attaching or adding the affixes (prefix, infix or suffix) to the stem.
E.g.      Shortly – suffix
            Unusual – prefix
            Belonging – suffix
            Inhuman – prefix
            Dismissal - suffix
(I) Prefixation
This is the process of forming new words by adding affixes before the stem/root. For example dislike , unhappy, amoral, decolonise, redo.

Classification of Prefix

Prefix are classified into several categories basing on the meaning they give when added to the stem   
i.  Negative prefixes
These give the meaning of “NOT” “the opposite of” or “lack of”
        E.g.    Informal – irrelevant
                  Impossible – illegal
                  Immobile – illogical
                  Irregular – disobey
                  Disadvantage - amoral
                  Apolitical

ii.     Restorative prefixes
    These give the meaning of “Reverse an action”
          E.g  Undress – deforest
                  Uncover – depopulate
                  Disconnect – devalue
                  Disorganized
                  Decolonize
iii.   Pejorative prefixes
These give the meaning of “unless. False, fake, unimportant. Wrong, badly or bad”
E.g. Malnutrition – pseudo name
      Malpractice – pseudo intellectual
      Misconduct – pseudo scientists
      Mismanage
      Misbehave
iv.   Prefixes of degree or size
These express degree or size in terms of quality or quantity.
E.g. Arch (supreme or highest in rank)
      Super (above or better)
      Sir (over and above) e.g. Sir name
      Sub (lower or less than) e.g. Substandard, subconscious
Over (too much) e.g. Over doss, over it, over confident
Under (too little) e.g. under paid, under look, under cook
Hyper (extremely or beyond) e.g. Hyper actives, Hyper sensitive
Ultra (extremely or beyond) e.g. Ultra modern, ultrasound
Mini (small) e.g. Mini bus, mini skirt
 v.  Prefixes of altitude
These include “Co-“(with or joined)                               
E.g. Co-operate, co- education, co- exist. “Counter” (in opposition to”) e.g. Counter attack, counter- revolution, and counter act
“Anti” (against) e.g. Antivirus, anticlockwise, anti body
“Pro” (instead of or on the side of) e.g. Pronoun, pro capitalism, Pro multiparty.

vi. Locative prefixes
These indicate location
E.g. Super (over or above) superstructure, super building, super imposed
Inter (between or among) international, inter school
Trans (across) Trans Saharan, trans plant, Trans Atlantic
vii.   Prefixes of time and order
These include “fore” (before, front, first) e.g. Foreground, fore legs, fore knowledge, fore head
Pre – (before) e.g.  Pre-mature                
                               Pre- independence
                               Pre- form one
                               Pre- National
                               Pre- judge
                               Pre- war
Post – (after) e.g.   Post- graduate
                              Post – independence
                              Post-election
                Ex – (former) e.g. Ex – president
                                             Ex – wife
                                             Ex – husband
                                             Ex – soldier
                                           
                 Re – (again or back) e.g.Re – write
                                                         Re call
                                                         Re evaluate

viii.   Number prefixes
These show number
Uni-/ Mono – (means one) e.g.Uni- cellular
                                                 Mono party
                                            Monolingual
                                       Monocotyledon
                                             Monosyllabic

Bi -/ Bi – (means two, double or twice) e.g. Bilingua
                                                                     Bicycle
                                                                     Ditransitive
                                                                     Dicotyledon
                                                                      Bi- annual

Tri (three) e.g. Triangle
                         Tricycle
                         Trilateral

Multi/ poly (many) e.g. Polyandry 
                                     Polygamy
                                     Multi lingua
                                     Multiparty
                                      Multi disciplinary

ix.    Conversion prefixes
Prefixes used to change a word from noun/adjective to verb
En – (make or become) 
e.g. Enslave
  Enlarge
  Ensure
  Enforce
  Enrich
        Enlightened

Be – (make or become) 
e.g. Befriend
       Be calm
       Be witch
                 
-A- (be or become) 
e.g. a live
       A sleep 
       A rise

x.  Other prefixes   
-   Auto (self) – Auto biography
              Autograph
               Autocracy
  
- Neo (new or revived) e.g. Neo- colonialism
                                           Neo-man
                                                                 

-Pan (all or worldwide) e.g. Pan-africanism

-Proto (original) e.g. Proto Bantu
                                 Proto language
                                  Proto type

-Semi (half) e.g. Semi-circle
                                           Semi- hemisphere
                                           Semi- final
                                           Semi-model


TASK
1. Provide the meaning of the following prefixes and provide three examples of words/roots/stem which can be use these prefixes.
 i) Sur -
ii) Proto -
iii) Hyper -
iv) Dis -
v) Neo -

2. With examples differentiate between pejorative prefixes and locative prefixes.
3. Use appropriate prefix(es)in each of the following words
       i) Charge
       ii) Type
       iii) possible
       iv) Navigation
       v) Ability

4. i) Give three examples of reversative prefixes
    ii) Write three examples of the prefix poly_
    iii) What is the difference of the prefix "Un" in unhappy, unkind and in uncover, untie

(II) Suffixation
Is the process of adding morphemes after a system/root. So as to form new word. Unlike prefixation, suffixes frequently alter the word class of a root/stem.
Classification of suffix
The suffixes are classified according to the class of the new word formed after the addition of the suffixes.
There are four major types of suffixes
    i)      - Noun suffixes
   ii)      - Adjective suffixes
  iii)       - Adverb suffixes
  iv)       - Verb suffixes-let (small)
Noun Suffixes   
are the suffixes added to the stem or bases of different word classes in the formation of the new word that are noun by category.
This falls into four categories;
(a) Noun to noun suffixes
- star (engaged in or belongs to)
       E.g. – Young –star
                  Gang-star
- eer (engaged in or belongs to)
      E.g. Engineer
             Profiteer
             Racketeer
- let (small)
E.g. Booklet
        Leaflet
        Piglet

- ette (small)
      E.g. Kitchenette
             Cigarette
             Statuette

- ess (small) e.g. Lioness
                        Actress
                        Princess

- hood (in the state or status of) e.g. Brotherhood
                                                         Manhood
                                                         Neighborhood
                                                         Youth hood
                                                         Adulthood

- Ship (in the state or status of) E.g. Friendship
                                              Relationship


- Dom (in the condition) E.g. Kingdom
                         Freedom
                         Boredom
                         Wisdom

- cracy (system of government) E.g. Bureaucracy
                                              Democracy

- ery (behavior of or place an ac
E.g. Slavery
             Machinery
             Peasantry
             Carpentry
                         
                      Concrete – Abstract

(b) Noun to Adjective suffixes are the suffixes added to
- ist (member of) e.g.  Socialist
                                 Idealist
                                 Capitalist
                                 Ratio list

- ism (attitude or political movement)
      E.g. Idealism
             Communism

- ness (quality) or state
      E.g. Happiness
             Cleverness

- ity (state or quality) e.g. Stupidity                           
                                       Ability
                                      Salinity

(c) Verb to Noun suffixes
- er (instrumental or a genitive) e.g. Player
                                                   Reader
                                                   Writer
                                                    Farmer
                                                    Leader

- or (“ ) e.g.    Actor
                     Investigator
                     Incubator
                     Insulator

- al (action of) e.g. Arrival
                           Dismissal
                           Withdrawal
                           Proposal

- age (an activity or)
                  E.g.     Drainage
                              Marriage
                              Passage
                              Leakage

- ment (state or action of)
                  E.g.   Government
                           Treatment
                            Achievement
                            Improvement


- ant (instrumental or adjective) E.g.  Assistant

-ee (passive receiver) e.g. Employee
                                           Payee
                                           Trainee
                                             Appointee
                                            Interviewee

- (a) tion (state or action)
E.g. organization
                   Examination
                   Discussion
                   Globalization
                   Penetration

(ii) Adjective suffixes
They are used to change the bases of different word classes such as noun or verbs in order to form the new words that are Adjective by class.

(a) Verb to Adjective suffixes
- ive (which) e.g. Active
                         Respective
                         Comparative
                         Collective

- able /-ible  E.g.  Manageable
                          Sensible
                          Movable       
                          Honorable 

Noun to Adjective suffixes
- al (of or with)  e.g. National
                              Accidental
                              Criminal
                              Historical

- (ii) an (member of) e.g. Tanzanian
                                         Canadian

- ful (having or with)
      E.g.  Beautiful
              Wonderful

- less (without)
      E.g.      Childless
                  Speechless
                  Harmless
                  Hopeless
                  Useless

- ly (having a quality of)
      E.g.      Manly
                  Friendly
                  Cowardly
- ish (belong to or having the character of)
      E.g.      Selfish
                  Turkish
                  Irish
                  Swedish
- ous (with or worth) e.g. Dangerous
                                        Famous

- ese (a member or citizen of)
      E.g.      Chinese
                  Congolese
                  Japanese

- y (like, with or cover with)
      E.g.      Sandy
                  Muddy
                  Sugar
                  Healthy
                  Creamy
                  Hairy

- like (having a quality or behavior like)
E.g.      Childlike
             Fingerlike

(iii) Verb suffixes
These are the suffixes added to the stems or roots of Noun or adjectives to from the new words which are verbs by class.
These are three types of verb suffixes

-ify (cause or make) e.g. Identify
                                         Simplify
                                          Notify
                                           Classify
                                            Purify

-en (cause or make) e.g. Widen   lengthen
                                         Sharpen    strengthen
                                          Weaken
                                           Sadden
                                           Threaten

-ize/ - ise ( “  ) e.g.  Apologize
                               Colonize
                               Socialize
                               Formalize

(iv)  Adverb suffixes
These are the suffixes which when added to the roots or stems they produce a new word which is an adverb by class

-ly (in the manner of) e.g. quickly
                                          Slowly
                                          Quietly
                                           Happily
                                           Gradually
                    
-ward (in the manner of or in the direction of)
                                    E.g. Backward
                                            Onwards
                                            Inwards
                                            Downwards
                                            Upwards   
 -wise (as far as or in the manner of)
                                       E.g.   Education wise
                                                Clockwise
                                                Cultural wise
                                                Political wise
TASK
1. Form verbs from the following words; family, type, popular, clear.
2. Form adjectives from the following words;expression, problem, progress, crime, courage.
3. With examples differentiate prefixes from suffixes

(b)  COMPOUNDING
This is the process of words formation whereby two or more lexical morphemes are joined or combined together to form a new single word.
            E.g.   Classroom
                      Earth quake
                      Girlfriend
                      Tea spoon
                      Table mat
                      Easy-going
                      Washing-machine
NB:  The new words formed as a result of the process of compounding are technique known as compound words or compounds.
Classification of compound words
The compound words are classified basing on two aspects;
i)  The way they are written
ii) According to the meaning
  
i)  The way they are written

Solid/closed compound
These are the compound words that are written without leaving any space or gap between the bases.
            E.g.  Classroom
                    Teaspoon
                    Earthquake
                    Wallpaper
                    Textbook
                    Payphone
                 
Hyphenated compounds
These are the compound words that the written with the hyphen separating the two bases.
E.g. Fire-escape
                   High-grade
                   Colour-blind
                   Brother-in-law   
                   Machine-gun

Open Compounds
These are the compound words that are written by leaving the space (gap) between the two bases.
E.g.  Sewing machine 
                     Town planning
                     Tape measure 
                     Baking powder
                    Washing machine

ii)   According to the meaning

Transparent compounds
These are the compound whose meanings reflect the meaning of separate bases i.e. the compounds whose meanings are directly derived or related to the meaning of the separate bases which make them up.
           E.g.  Classroom
                    Girlfriend  
                    Earthquake
                    Teaspoon 
                    Washing machine

Opaque Compounds
These are the compounds whose meanings differ from the meanings of separate bases i.e. the compounds whose meanings are not derived or not directly related with the meanings of separate bases which make up
E.g. Honey moon                              wide spread
        Daily word                                blue berry
        Pass word                                  call right
        Sweet heart                                cow boy
         Hot cake
        Home sick
        Sugar mummy
        Day dream

Bahrain
These are the compound words whose meanings reflect the physical features or appearance of a person or object being reflected to.
E.g.    Blackboard
                     White fluid
                     Block head
                     Feature weight
                     Red – eyed
Identification of the compound words

There are three ways of identifying the compound words
i. Through the entry in the dictionary 
i.e. any compound word should occupy its own entry in the dictionary. It should be regarded as an independent word in the dictionary.
E.g. Bedroom
Classroom
National park

ii.  Through the word class or category 
i.e. Each compound word has its own class different from other word classes of the words constituting the compound
E.g. play boy – Noun
     Play -Verb
     Boy – noun
Madman – noun
Mad – adjective
Man – noun
Colour blind – adjective
Colour - noun
Blind - adjective
Well – known – adjective
Well – adverb
Known – verb

Through the meaning i.e. some words retain their original meaning after the combination but some of the words convey the meaning that are totally different from the meaning of the original word
E.g. Green fly, Sweet heart, Pass word

(c) CONVERSION

This is the process of word formation (derivation process) whereby a base is assigned a new word category (class) without an addition or reduction of any affix. I.e. it is the process whereby a new word is formed by the change of one class into another without the addition or reduction of affix or syllable such as noun into verb adjective – noun and vice – verse
E.g. Love (N) Love is blind.
                 Love (V) I love you.

Walk (N) The walk to Kilimanjaro was fantastic.
Walk (V) We usually walk on foot to school.

Drink (N) We didn’t get any drink at chalinze.
Drink (V) My parents drink beer daily.

Help (N) I need help.
Help (V) I used to help him.

Work (N) My brother has gone to work.
Work (V) They work day and night.

Doubt (N) I did not have any doubt on her.
Doubt (V) I doubt his ability.

Lower (V) May you please lower your voice?
Lower (Adj) He usually speaks in a lower voice.

Ship (N) She traveled by ship.
Ship (V) Slave traders ship travel to America every year.

Poor (N) we need to help the poor.
Poor (Adj) That poor person has been killed.

NB: There some words which change from noun into verb by either voice in the final consonant or by stress shift
(N) Use /just/
(V) Use /just/

Advice (N) I gave him advice.
Advice (V) I advised him.

Object – (N) give me that object.
Object – (V) why do you object?

Conduct – (N) he didn’t show as any good.
Conduct – (V) conduct discussion.

Protest (N) - The protest was between government and student of Dodoma University.
Protest (V) – The groups of women took to the streets to protest against the arrest.

Present (N) Adj – I was present.
      -   He has brought a nice present.
Present (V) - Present your work.

 TASK
1. Construct two sentences in each of the following words showing how they can be used in a different word classes without any affixation process
        i) Water
        ii) Import
        iii) Produce
        iv) Class
        v) Cleaning
 2. Write new sentences by changing each of the words in capital in to noun
      I.  What  you PRESENT  to day will automatically affect your future
     II.   We except to  PRODUCE enough crops this year because there is enough rain
    III.   The names of evils doers were BLACKLISTED
    IV.    For the language to develop, it must borrow some vocabularies from other language.

(d) REDUPLICATION

This is the process of word formation where by new words are formed through the repetition of the same or almost the same sounds i.e. It is the process whereby the new word are formed by repeating sound which are either similar or slightly different
E.g.      Hush – hush
            Sing – song
            Tip – top
            Tick – tock
            Ding – dong
            Zig – zag
 Criss – cross
 Poor – poor
 Goody – goody
 See – saw
 Tom – tom
 Bow – Bo

NB: The new words that are formed as a result of reduplication process are known as reduplicative

The reduplication have the following basic uses
1.      To imitate sound
E.g. Ding – dong (sound of the bell)
Ha ha - (sound of laughter)
Bow – bow (dog barking)
Tick – tock (Clock sound)

2.      To make things took more intense than they are.
(To intensify adjectives)
E.g. Tip – top – (top most)
Goody – goody (very good)

3.      To suggest a state of disorder, instability, non-sense
E.g. Niggled – pigged (Un orderly/ mixed up)
Lodge – podge (disorganized)
Wishy – washy (weak)
Locus – pocus (Trickery)
Tick – tacky (cheap an of low quality)
Pool – pool (not working)

4. To suggest alternative movement of things

          

II.    Minor processes of word information

(e) CLIPPING

This process of word formation whereby one of the syllables are omitted or subtracted from a word and the remaining syllables are regarded as a new word
This occurs when a word of more than one syllable is reduced to a shorter form which is regarded as a new word.
NB: The removal or emotion of a syllable may take place either at the beginning at the end of the word or both.

(f) BLENDING

This is the process of word formation whereby two or more parts, fragments or elements of two or more different words are put or joined together to form a new.
I.e. it is the process of talking only the beginning part of one word and joining it to (with) the beginning or the end of another word.
Example: 
breakfast + lunch = Bruch
Motorist + hotel =motel
Cellular + telephone = cell phone
Mobile + telephone = mobile
Television + Broad cast = telecast
International + police = Interpol
Transfer + resister = transistor
Information + entertainment = infotainment
Gasoline + alcohol = gas
International + network = internet
Television + marathon = telethon
Motor + pedal = moped
Electronic + mail = email
Smoke + fog = smog
Helicopter + airport = heliport
Parachute + troops = paratroops
Travel + catalogue = travelogue
Binary + Digit = bit

(g) ACRONYM

This is the process of word formation whereby the initial or first letters of different words are put together as a new word.
The words that are formed from the initial letter are technique termed as acronyms.

There are two types of acronyms      
i.     Acronyms pronounced as a sequence of letter
E.g.      C.O.D – cash on delivery
            CID – Criminal Investigation Department
            FBI – Federal bureau
            UN – United Nations
            IPA – International Phonetic Alphabet
            CUF – Civil United Front
            CPU- central processing unit

ii.   Acronyms pronounced as words
E.g.     NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization
TANESCO – Tanzania electricity Supply Company
UNO – United Nations Organization
UNESCO – United nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
AIDS – Acquired immune Deficiency and Syndrome
CUF – Civil United Fronts
TANU – Tanganyika African National Union
TAMWA – Tanzania Media Women Association


(h) BACK FORMATION

This is the process of word formation whereby new words are created or formed by the removal of some parts (affixes) from an existing word.
I.e. it is the process whereby a word of one type (usually a noun) is reduced to form another word of different type (usually a verb)
E.g.    Option = opt
Examination = Examine
Donation = Donate
Worker = Work
Television = Televised
Emotion = Emote
Discussion = Discuss


Action = act

(i)  BORROWING

This is the process of taking over the words from one language and adopting or incorporating into another language. The borrowed words are termed as loan words.
English language has borrowed many words
E.g. alcohol - Arabic
Zebra - Bantu
Safari -  Swahili
Garage – French
Piano – Italian
Chemistry – Arabic
Opera – Italian
Umbrella – Italian
Mosquito – Spanish
Zero – Arabic
Wagon – Dutch
Golf – Dutch
Calvary – Italian
Magazine Arabic
Bazaar – Persia
Boss – Dutch
Tycoon – Japanese

Algebra – Arabic

However other language have borrowed some words from English
(Shirt) English – shati - Swahili
Super market – suupaa – maketto – Japanese
Radio – rajio – Japanese

(j) COINING/ COINAGE

This is the process of word formation by which totally new words are incorporated into the language. This comes as a result of scientific discoveries in which new terms or words are introduced which name the product.
E.g. Aspirin
Website
Black berry
Toss
 Hitachi
Samsung
Internet
Globalization

You – tube

(kONOMATOPOEIA

This is the process whereby words are formed by imitating the natural sounds made by objects or animal. The word formed by imitating the natural sounds made by objects or animals are termed as Onomatopoeic or Echo words
E.g. ding – dong (sound of a bell)
      Bomb (explosion)
      Bow bow (dog barking)
Bang (sudden loud noise of something)
Tick – tock – (clock sound)
Cuckoo – (sound of a bird)

 Hah aha –( laughter)

Revision Question
1.  Mention the word formation processes involved in the formation of the following words.
i.     Exaggeration
ii.   Vodacom
iii.   Transistor
iv.     Safari
v.       Revlon
vi.     Farmer
vii.    Sugarcane
viii.  Leader ship
ix.     Book case
x.       Motel
xi.      Socialist
xii.    Bookcase
xiii.   Prof
xiv.    Samsung
xv.      Mini
xvi.    Motorcycle


xvii.  UNO

2. Make two different sentences for each of the following words.  For each sentence the word has to belong to a different class.
i.  A conflict
(i)    ................................................................................................................
(ii)   .................................................................................................................

ii.    Abuse
(i)    .................................................................................................................
(ii)   ………………........................................................................................

iii.  Insult
(i)      ..................................................................................................................
(ii)   ..................................................................................................................

iv.  Narrow
(i)     ..................................................................................................................
(ii)     ………………………..............................................................................

v.    Reject
(i)   ..................................................................................................................
(ii)    …………………………..........................................................................

3. Name the word formation processes involved in the formation of the words in brackets
       I.   Mwakifulefule had a  (jacket less)  book
       II.   Mayasa  (parties)  every Saturday night
      III.  Everybody must fight against (aids)
      IV.   Mufungwa  has just got a new (car phone)
      V.    Kagaruki wants  to be a (footballer)
 
NECTA  2012


1.  Read the following complex sentence and then answer the questions that follow.
Tanzania government has been using teacher in trying to transform education system which was inherited from the colonialism in order to match it with its own new goals, aspirations and concepts of development.
Identify the following from the above given sentence.
a. Five stems
b. From 5 stems in part (a) show the roots
c. 5 derivation morphemes
d. 5 inflectional morpheme

2.  a) Provide the adjectival forms the following words and write one Sentence for all
     b)  explain the process involved in the formation of the following groups of words
                        i.     Alcohol, boos, piano, zebra
                        ii.    Loan word, waste basket, water – bird, finger print
                        iii.   Facsimile – fax, cabriolet – cab, advertisement – ad
                        iv.   Telecast, hotel, heliport, brunch
  vi.     Telecast – television, opt- option, enthuse – enthusiasm, emote – emotion

Answers for question 1 & 2 (necta 2012)
1a.       Government
            Education
            Colonialism
            Aspiration
            Development

  b.     Govern
          Educate
          Colony
          Spice
          Develop      
   c.      meant
           ion
           ism
           ion
           met
  d.       -ing
            -en
             -s
             -ed
          
2. a) Breakable
        My pen is breakable.
   b. Measurable
        Ojiki’s thing is measurable
  c.   Mental
        She visited the mental clinic
  d.    Memorable
         Her birthday was a memorable event
  e.    Medical
         She is a medical student 

b)  (i)    Borrowing
     (ii)   Compounding
     (iii)  Clipping
     (iv)   Blending
     (v)    Back formation






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