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Monday, May 6, 2019

ENGLISH: FORM FIVE - LISTENING SKILLS

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LISTENING SKILLS

According to Oxford Living Dictionaries, to listen is to give attention to sound or action. When listening, one is hearing what others are saying, and trying to understand what it means. The act of listening involves complex affective, cognitive, and behavioral processes. Affective processes include the motivation to listen to others; cognitive processes include attending to, understanding, receiving, and interpreting content and relational messages; and behavioral processes include responding to others with verbal and nonverbal feedback.

Listening is ability to accurately receive and interpret messages in the communication process. It involves identifying the sounds of speech and processing them into words and sentences. When we listen we use our ears to receive individual sounds. (Letters, stress, rhythm and pauses) and we use our brain to convert them into messages that mean something to us.
Listening is key to all effective communication. Without the ability to listen effectively, messages are easily misunderstood. As a result, communication breaks down and the sender of the message can easily become frustrated or irritated.

Listening in any language requires focus and attention. Listening is the key to all effective communication. It is a skill that some people need to work at it even harder than others. People who have difficulty in concentrating are typically poor listeners.
Like babies we learn this this skill by listening to people who already know how to speak the language. This may or may not include native speakers. For practice you can listen to live or recorded voice. The most important thing to listen to a variety of voices as often as you can.

NB: To become a fluent speaker you need to develop strong Listening skills.Listening not only help you understand what people are saying to you 
-It also helps you to speak clearly to other people
-It helps you learn how to pronounce words properly
-It helps how to use intonation and where to place stress in words and sentences.
Listening

Listening Strategies 

Since listening is in activity that is both physical and mental, it needs active involvement of the listeners. Thus there are several strategies to be followed in order for one to be an effective listener these strategies are as follows.
i.   Have the desire to listen
Listening becomes effective if the listener exerts the desire to listen i.e. it need someone to have interest in understanding what the speaker is talking about the listener needs to prepare his or her mind so that it is ready for listening.

ii.   Be open and develop willingness to learn
Do not attempt to challenge everything that you hear instead give the speaker time to air his or her views in order to get new information  thus you are  urged to be ready to hear even things that you don’t believe in, this shows that tolerance is vital if  we are to be good listeners.

iii.   Post pone judgment
In the process of listening, the listeners are adjust not to judge a speaker basing on his or her appearance instead the   need to concentrate on what the speaker is talking  about i.e. the judgement  has to be based on the message and not speaker appearance.

iv.  Be physically and mentally alert the listeners are advised to bring their mind focusing on the speaker i.e. sitting in the manner that they see the speaker all the time this means you should face the speaker

v. Observed the listeners are advised to carefully observe what the speaker is doing in the stage this will help you  identify important points being emphasized by the speaker so you should be in observing  all what the speaker does as most of the non-verbal  does compliment the verbal part of the message.

vi.   Focus on understanding the speaker view point to listen with the intention of understanding what the speaker believe in i.e. respect the speaker with empathy.

vii.  Predict and ask questions

viii. Look as you are listening tell the speaker by your appearance that you are listening i.e. sit straight and establish and maintain eye contact.

ix.  Avoid things that can act as barriers to prevent you from paying attention to what  is being talked about e.g. Hot, weather, someone who talks

x.  Do not make any disturbance unnecessarily such as talking unnecessary so that you can understand

xi.  Avoid rudeness (impolite) by showing lack of cooperation such as reading a newspaper talking to the phone.




HOW TO LISTEN WELL / BECOME AN AFFECTIVE LISTENER

1. Stop talking
Do not talk while somebody else is talking, listen to what they are saying. Do not interrupt, talk of them or finish their sentences for them. When the other person has finished talking you may need to clarify to ensure you have received their message accurately.

2. Prepare yourself to listen.
Relax and focus on the speaker. Put other things out of mind. The human mind is easily disturbed by other thoughts. For example what for lunch, what time do I need to leave to catch my train, is it going to rain, Try to put other thoughts out of Ming and concentrate on the message being communicated.

3. Put the speaker at ease.
Help the speaker to feel free to speak. Remember their needs and concern. Nod head or use other gestures or words to encourage them to continue. Maintain eye contact but don't stare.

4. Remove Dist-ruction.
Focus on what is being said. Do not doodle, shuff papers, look out the window, Pick your fingernails etc. This etc. This behaviors disrupt the listening process and send message to the speaker that you are bored.

5. Empathize.
Try to understand the other persons point of view look at issues from their perspective. By having an open mind we can more fully empathize with the speaker. If the speakers says something that you disagree with the speaker. If the speaker says something that you disagree with then wait and construct argument to counter what is said but keep on open mind to the views and opinions of others.
6.  Be Patient.
A pause, even a long pause does not necessarily mean that the speaker has finished, be patient and let the speaker continue in their own time because sometimes it takes long time to formulate. What to say and how to say it.

7.  Avoid Personal Prejudice:
Try to  be impartial do not become irritated and do not let the persons's harbits or mannerism distruct you from what they are really saying. Everybody has different way of speaking For example some people are nervous or sky, some have regional accent or make some excessive arm movements. Some people like to pace whilst talking others like to sit still. Focus on what is being said and ignore about the style.

8. Listen to the tone.
Volume and tone add to what someone is saying. A good speaker will use both volume and tone to their advantage to keep audience attentive, Everybody will use pitch, tone, and volume of voice in certain situations 
- let this help you understand the emphasis of what is being said.

9. Listen for ideas - Not just words
You need to get the whole picture not just isolated bits and pieces

10. Distinguish between facts and opinions 
E.g. -Tanzania is the Union of Tanganyika and Zanzibar
        - Twenty four people died in the accident yesterday
         - Most of the people who are fact ore lazy

11. Follow Meaning Markers
Sequence: First, second, third, next or use of numbers 
              1, 2, 3, 4............ or use of letter a, b, ...........
Addition: Also, apart from that, in addition, in connection to that, furthermore, moreover, as well as......
         Clarifying: in other words, that is to say, this means that I mean ..............
         Contrast: Whilst, but, yet, while, still, however, even though, nevertheless ...........
         Similarity: Similarly, in the same way, likewise
         Conclusion: Therefore, so, thus, to sum up, in conclusion, to summarize, to wind up.

12. Take notes 
Note taking help us to follow more attentively what is being said and to have a record of what we listened to for future use/reference It is not possible to remember all what we listened to so we need to take note.
TASK:
1. Do you think it is importance for us to become good listeners? why?
2. How can a person listen well?



THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LISTENING & HEARING

1.  Listening is a conscious choice that demands attention and concentration while hearing is a passive occurrence that requires no effort.

2. Listening is a skill which allows one to make sense of and understand what is being said while hearing is a physical ability without any effort.

3.  Listening uses other senses  of organs such as hearing, seeing and sometimes the sense of touch too. While hearing uses only one of the five senses of organs which is hearing.
4.  Listening is a voluntary act while Hearing is simply that act of perceiving sounds by the year. (involuntary).

5. Listening is a skill where by a person need to learn it. (Not everyone has the ability to listen) While Everyone can hear unless there is a physical disability.

NB: Hearing defines only the physical measurement of the sound waves that are transmitted to the ear and into the brain where they are processed into audible information. WHILE Listening goes far beyond your natural hearing processes.
BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE LISTENING 

1. Physical/Environmental Barriers 

These are the obstacles which affect listening and in most situation they are ease to correct.
    - Problem with the hearing aids 
    - Use of Microphones which do not project as it suppose to be heard 
    - Noise 
    - If it is difficult to see the speaker or if there is something more interesting to look at.
    - The chair uncomfortable
    - The room is too hot or too cold.
    - Bad ventilation i.e stuffy/smoke atmosphere. 
    - The lighting too bright or too dim
    - Smells.

2. Mental/Psychological Barriers
  - Wondering mind or inattention (fact; the brain can process over 500 words per minute while the average  speaker talks at a rate of 125 to 250 words per  minute) 
   - Bias and prejudice i.e negative attitudes to wards the speaker or the topic.
   - Anger, Frustration
   - Own anxiety/nervous i.e worried about
   - Status difference

3. Physiological Barriers 
    - Headache
    - Hearing impairment
    - Tiredness
    - Discomfort, pain, illness
    - Poor eyesight.

4.   Linguistic Barriers
      - Jargons or specialist language
      - Monotonous
      - Inappropriate tone
      - Hesistant manner
      - Badly organized material
       - Complex vocabulary
       - Complex sentence
       - Delivery too fast
       - Delivery too slow and ponderous
       - Delivery too loud

5. Perceptual Barriers
       - Social/cultural background differences
       - Appearance of the speaker
       - Mannerism
       - Accents
6. Content Barriers
        - Subject of the discussion does not interest
        - Speaker goes on for too long
        - We have heard it before
        - Content is too difficult/simplistic
        - Content is repetitious





LEVELS OF LISTENING 

i) Discriminative listening
 

Is the most basic type of listening, where by the different between the different sounds is  identified if you can not notice the differences then you can not make sense of the meaning that is expressed by such differences. A person who can not hear the sabtleties of emotional variation in another person's voice will be likely to be able to discern the emotions the other persons is experiencing.

Listening is a visual as well as auditory act, as we communicate much through body language, therefore we also need to be able to discriminate between muscle and skeletal movements that signify different meanings.

ii) Comprehension/content/informative/full listening.

After discriminating different sounds and sights is to make sense of them. 
To comprehend the meaning requires first having a lexicon of words at our fingertips and also all rules of our fingertips and also all rules of grammar and syntax by which we can understand what others are saying. The same is true, of course for the visual components of communication and an understanding of body language help us understand what other person is really mean.

iii) Critical listening 
Is listening in order to evaluate and judge. i.e farming opinion about what is being said. Judgement means assessing strength and weakness, agreement and approval. This form of listening requires significant   real-time cognitive effort as the listeners analyses what is being said, relating it to the existing knowledge and rules whilst simultaneously listening to the on going words from the speaker.

iv) Appreciative listening 
In appreciative listening we seek certain information which we will then appreciate, This helps us meet our  needs and goals.we use appreciative listening when we are listening to good music, poetry or may be even the stirring words of a great leader.

v ) Sympathetic listening 
In sympathetic listening we care about the other person and show this concern in the way we pay close attention and express our sorrow for their ills.

vi) Empathetic listening 
Is the ability to put yourself in another place. It enable you to understand what the person feels, believes or acts in a certain way. You do not necessarily come to share the person's views or feelings but you do understand them.Such understanding will help you evaluate the information you hear more completely.


IMPROVING LISTENING SKILLS

You should also keep in mind that you  need to use different listening strategies for different situations. Review the levels of listening and determine which is required for   each listening situation.

However the following suggestions should help you regardless of your purpose:-
Concentrate
:The best way to improve listening skills is to work at them. Block out distractions and concentrate on what you hear.

Practice :Use every opportunity you can to concentrate on what you hear. Watch newscast and the information programs on TV that you might not normally take time to watch. spend quiet time concentrating on the sounds around you.

Prepare to listen :Sit where you can see and hear the speaker. If you are going to listen to a speech on a subject you know little about it do some preliminary reading.

Note: People fail to listen for many reasons; 

i) Expecting the speaker to say things they love to hear   
ii) Not open to listen what others say 

iii) Not interested in their situation or how they feel
iv) Lacking patience to sit down and listen
v) Thinking that one is superior than the rest and that they are always right 
vi) Tending to be defensive

vii)  Preparing for the response even before the other person has finished so their mind is always occupied 

viii) Rushing through everything and not wanting to sit down for a few minutes to listen to others 

ix)  Feel awkward about what the speaker said 




LISTENING AND NOTE TAKING

When you take note, it isn't necessary to write down every word.Outline major ideas, Listen for key words and phrases. 
Develop your own shorthand and learn to abbreviate words. Make notes about any examples speakers use to explain their ideas. Note taking involve recording ideas and facts that you learn in class to help you remember and see them letter.

Why is note taking important?
- You become an active part of the listening and learning process.
- You create a history of your course content
- You have a written record to view or study letter
- You reinforce what is communicated verbally.         

Strategies to increase comprehension and improve (Note taking)
1. Listening for structure cues (signpost/transition words, introduction, body and summary stages)
2. Looking for non -verbal cues (facial expression hand and body signals)
3. Looking for visual cues (copy the content of any visual aids used. 
4. Use symbol and abbreviations to save time.

Some of the example of commonly symbols and abbreviations are presented as follows:- 

              

COMMON ABBREVIATIONS
Many are derived from Latin,
     C.F (confer)  =compare
     I.e    (id est) =that is
     e.g   (example grate) = for example
     N.B  (nota benne)    =note well
     Etc  (et cetera)        =and so on
     No  (numero)          = number

TASK
1. Explain the differences between listening and hearing
2. Explain how listening is an important part of public speaking
3. Give three reasons to why listening is important in your daily life
4. Explain the difference between physical and mental barriers to effective listening ,Give three examples of barriers
5. Explain at least three ways to improve listening
Why do people find it hard to listen?             

Listening and Taking Notes

HOW TO USE AN ATM MACHINE
(With-drawing money from ATM machine)
Introduction
The acronym ATM stands for “Automatic teller machine” which means a computerized machine that facilities banking transactions especially depositing money (in highly technological developed countries) and withdrawing money (almost in every country).
ATM technology is recent especially in third world countries where computer technology is still low. However this technology is growing very fast especially in urban areas where physical infrastructures are being improved tremendously.
Using an ATM technology is only possible to bank customers who have bank account and provided with ATM cards. An ATM cards enables a bank customer to perform banking transaction especially withdrawing money. However to withdraw money, a customer needs to have enough bank balance that enables him/ her to withdraw.
As a recent technology, ATM technology has posed a number of challenges and risk one of the challenges is back of power especially in third world countries (TWC) security problem is another serious challenges where frauds and stealing are common in ATM machines. This goes together with lack of sufficient security in places where ATM machines are located ATM card join and the related problems such as miscounting of cash/ money.
Despite all the above challenges and problems ATM technology is very useful in saving time and prevision of banking service close to people and throughout the day and throughout the week something that cannot be done by normal banking transaction.
ATM technology has also helped people in avoiding taking and walking or staying with a lot of cash at home.

USING AN ATM MACHINE

Before thinking of using an ATM machine you are supposed to open a bank account and deposit your money. The money that you are likely to withdraw should be more than a minimum balances. It is also recommended that you have to open a bank account that you feel that it can serve you properly and national wide. Do not open a bank account with a bank which is confined to only one city or town. It is also important to note that a good bank is a bank that is more reliable, with sufficient capital good record of trust from customers as well as lowest service charges. It is also important to think of a bank that has spread ATM machines.

SECURITY ISSUES

Using ATM services requires certain security issues to consider. Security issues are grouped into categories (3) as follows.

a) Selecting an ATM

i) Do not selecting an ATM at the corner of a building or hidden and obscured area selected an ATM located at the center of a building or an open areas increases security and safety as well as surprise.

ii) Select an ATM located in area without banners in case of emergency. These areas provide hiding opportunities for criminal especially thieves and robbers.

iii) Select an ATM that is in well lightened locations (especially at right)
iv)Solicit prior criminal activity statistic or information before choosing an ATM.

v) Avoid ATM location with large perimeter parking yards/lots or car congestion area.


b) Approaching the ATM

i)  Never approach an ATM where there’s no light
ii) Check the security specious people around or cars faked a side with people inside.

iii) Avoid ATM with obscuring objects e.g. building
iv) At right don’t go to an ATM alines, go with your friend/companion

v)  If you’re driving, keep all the window closed and all the door closed. Before switching off the engine watch the area careful and quickly all sides.If  someone approaches your vehicles cancel or postpone the transactions and go to another ATM. If it is safe exist the vehicle and lock it and keep your  keys handy so that you can reenter quickly after the transaction.

vi) Never approach an ATM if the lights at the site are not working.

c). Using the ATM

i) When waiting in line to rise the ATM wait stand behind the person ahead of you and do not approach the ATM until they complete the transaction.
ii) When you’re using the ATM AND someone is closer to you than you would like them to be, ask them politely and tactfully to step back a few steps.
If no co – operation council the transaction and wait outside or go to another ATM. This is a risk

iii) Before your approach the ATM, have your ATM cards ready and know your pin number or passwords.

iv) Protect and hide your person identification.

v) Memories your pin and avoid writing it anywhere if you can’t memories it write and a small piece of paper and after the transaction destroy it completely or chew it and split it. Do not carry or put your pin in your wallet or pocket.

vi) When using the ATM, stand directly in front of the keyboards blocking the view of others. Do not enter the pin if someone around can view the screen/keyboard.

vii) Select a pin that is different from the numbers noted in your wallet, mobile phones, birthdays etc in case you’re free to do so.   

Vii) Do not accept offers of assistant with ATM from strangers. If you are having a problem consults your bank of officials, not even security guards.

viii) When the transaction is complete, take your properties card, money and receipts and put them in your wallet, bag or pocket and leave immediate.

ix) Check security around. If you feel someone is following you, walk or drive quickly to on open place where there are a lot of people and call the police.

x) If you lose or misplace or have your card stolen notify the card assure immediately.


MONEY WITHDRAWING PROCEDURES

  The following are procedure or steps in withdrawing money from an ATM.
1.  Insert your bank/ ATM card into a reader slot.
2.  When prompted by ATM, select language e.g. Eng or Kisw.
3.  When prompted by ATM, enter or type in your PIN password
4.  When prompted by ATM, select withdraw
5.  When prompted by ATM, enter or type the amount of money you want to withdraw.
6.  Wait for the machine to count and release the money out.
7.  When prompted select if you require a receipt or other transaction
8.  Collect your money /cash. If possible count it quickly.
9.  Eject the card or await and return and remove it from the card reader slot and leave.


REGISTER DIFFERENCES
Register is a variety of language that is distinguished according to use.
For example the lawyer doctors, teachers of different subjects,the engineers ,team coach etc. They all use specific language basing (depending on their respective fields.Thus the use of different languages according to different fields is what we call register.

The difference in registers is due to the fact that each field use language which is characterized by certain stylistic features.Thus, we need to pay much attention to speaker's register so as to identify and understand the language used as per its stylistic features.

Observe the following registers and their stylistic feature.


LANGUAGE OF NEWSPAPER REPORT
                                   
                               
Stylistic Features:
- Use of long sentences
 Example: the above paragraph has only one sentence.
- The use of numbers as it is very importance to show the scores and time in football.
- Use of past tense as it reports the past event.
- Use names of people and places here and the  e.g names of players,location/field/pitch(national stadium)
- Use of adjectives e.g "aggressive team."well deserved win"
- Specialized terms like soccer,tournament.Always use adverbs e.g.yesterday,next week,tomorrow etc.

LANGUAGE ADVERTISING

Lexical feature of Advertising language.

The use of first and second personal pronouns i.e.” I / We/ you” It is because these pronouns help to create a friend- like intimate atmosphere to move and persuade the audience the use of the first and second person is called gossip- advertisements

E.g - Hyundai: Always there for you
       -  We live to deliver.
       - Yamaha Every time we race you win
      - Use of motive or evaluative Adjectives or Adjectival Phrases.  

E.g. Beautiful writing instruments peerless accessories for the innate sophisticate. Each pen and pencil is an original innovative designs preserited exclusively for those who appreciate only the very best    
-  Use of Technical Terms and Scientific rounding words

Eg - Pure colour Beautiful full- colour copies are in fool bloom from Minolta Because of our laser Intensive Modulation system ( LIMOS)-----
-  A powerful built – in flash system related at GN20 and a spectrum of features
-  Use of Negative words

Eg: A diamond engagement ring show your love as nothing else can
Words such as no, none, nothing, never, etc to show the uniqueness of the product. 
-  Use of inclusive words
   Such as all, every, always etc to indicate that reference is universal
         Eg; Coca-Cola always Coca-Cola
-  Use of compound words
                Eg; Adj + N- first class
-   Top – quality bulb
                 N+ V + ed- honey coated sugar puffs
                 V + ing – shining clean


Syntactic features of Advertising language

- Frequent use of simple sentence  
Example from Honda automobile Honda has always made good cars people love them
Our new program will help to resolve products- related questions about your.This program is free .Just ask at any Honda dealer for a booklet Or call -------,
you see Honda wants you and your Honda to have a long and happy relationships. It’s only right.

- Frequent use of interrogative sentences.
Eg – Hair Darkening Medicine: Are you going grey to early?

       What in women’s Realm this week? A wonderful beauty offers for you

       Lincoln Park Zoo: What would man be without the ape?
- Frequent use of imperative sentences
Imperative sentence give a command or make a request and they are usually short and powerful sentences.
         Eg - Honda Motor: Buy one
                Honda civic wagon: put it all behind you
                Express card: Don’t leave home without it.
                United Airlines: Life is a journey, travel it well.

- Use of present Tense Eg –A diamond is forever

-  Use of Minor Sentences.
Eg – Mild Cigarette: A mid way. Make it a mild smoke, smooth, rich, rewarding.
     -Volks wagen Pass at wagon: somewhere between tuxedo and birthday suit

Graphological feature of Advertising language
For example:
– Bolding
-  Capitalization
-  The use of abbreviations for economic purposes Eg – Ltd, tel, Co, DSM, CCM, UNHCR etc
-  Punctuation marks such as exclusions (!) + coloring, Picture, etc.

Semantic Features of the language of Advertising
For example
– Ambiguity
- Idioms and proverbs
-  Figurative expression
    Simile- cools as maintain stream
    Metaphor – Pepsi the father of all drinks
    Personification- Now you faxes can find you even if your office cant

-GS Co introducing camera that shares your vision of perfect picture
Euphemism- Diet cake we know you are both gourmet and weight watcher (factor obese people)
 -  If world class Rolex has been a bit beyond you budget before likey now puts it within you reach


TELEPHONE CONVERSATION

With this paradigm of science of technology we always make conversion through our telephones.We use telephone in our daily communication for instance at work place .in business or in social interaction.
When we speak on telephone it is because we want to achieve certain goal,therefore there are some rules that we need to observe for positive outcome.

Some of these rules are as follows;
-Clarify ,i.e to use a clear voice ,avoid all distractors (noise or poor equipments)talking while chewing something.
-Control your pace i.e Speak with a moderate speed so as to be understood fast and clearly.


Study the example below ,then relate it with your daily conversation.

Rashid: Hello,Janeth.
Janeth: Hello.
Rashid: Are you done with the assignment on Environmental issues?
Janeth: Oh,yes Rashid
Rashid: I beg your help Janeth,there are some areas that i find difficult in attempting it
Janeth: Okay you should not worry about that let meet on Saturday around 2:00pm at the collage.
Rashid: Oh,thank you so much Janeth.I'll be grateful to find you there.
Janeth: Your welcome
Rashid: Wish you a nice moment
Janeth: Same to you ,thanks.
Rashid: okay ,bye bye
Janeth: Bye.

Answer the following question 
1.Do you think the speakers show politeness?why?
2.Why did Rashid make a call to Janeth ?

Taking a telephone message
We make call in our daily life,Sometimes we may not find the person we wish to talk to.In this scenario it is necessary to leave a message to a third party.Now what are the necessary information that we need to record when you are to take a message for some one else?

The card below show the necessary information to be taken/noted.
For:.............................
From:..........................
Tel no:.........................
Date:...........................
Time:...........................
Message:.....................
Taken by:.....................

Study the example below.

Tedy:      Hello.
Mr.Raju:  Hello,is madam Salma around?
Tedy:      No sir, she isn't who is calling please?
Mr.Raju:  I'm Mr.Raju,chief accountant Tick Company
Tedy:      Sorry sir she is not around at the moment but she will be back after 30 minutes.May I take a message for her please?
Mr.Raju:  Yes,please tell her that we are waiting for the confirmation on the invoice i sent her yesterday.
Tedy:      Wait a moment please confirmation on the invoice sent yesterday .Alright I'll tell her sir.
Mr.Raju:  Thank you very much .Goodbye.
Tedy:      You're welcome,sir Goodbye

TASK
1. Make a telephone conversation with your friend.
2.Imagine you're the secretary in one of the office and you have picked call from someone to your boss .Take the message from the caller to be submitted to your boss.   

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