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3. a) The Mechanisms developed by Plants in Semi-Arid Regions to adapt Drought Conditions. 
semi-arid region or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receive low annual rainfall from 250 to 500 mmand having scrubby vegetation with short, coarse grasses; not completely arid region.

Semi-Arid Region

The following are four mechanisms developed by plants n semi-arid regions to adapt drought condiiions.

i) The leaves are often reduced to spines, and this increases the volume to surface ratio.
ii) Stems are often heavily waxed to reduced cuticular water loss
iii) They have shallow-rooted, allowing them to respond quickly to light rainfalls.
iv) Water loss is very limited in desert succulents
Plants in Semi-Arid Region

b) Characteristics of Equatorial Forest

Equatorial forest is located in the equatorial zone the sun is nearly always overhead. This results in high temperatures, usually around 27 C and speeds up the rate at which the plants can photosynthesise. This type of vegetation grows as a result of the daily heavy rainfall (over 2500 mm per year).

Characteristics of Equatorial Forest:

i) Trees of over 40 m height 
ii) Thick canopy of plants
iii) Evergreen nature due to trees shedding their leaves at different times. Broad leaves

iv) They receive heavy rainfall about 2500 mm per year 
v) Two third of the trees trunk has no branches 
vi) No undergrowth as a result of lack of sunlight beneath

vii) Lianas which grow between big trees supported by huge trees. 
viii) Epiphytes eg. moses, lichen fern, 
ix) Trees of the same species.

Equatorial Forest


 (b) Nature of production are as follow

On the production of  MAIZE

In the year of 2000, production of maize (65000 tonnes ) was greater than  production of maize in the year of 2001 (35000 tonnes), then the production of maize started to increased in the year of 2002 by 60000 tonnes and reach to 70000 tonnes in 2003.

On the production of  TOBACCO

The production of Tobacco fluctuated depend on a certain year as follow
In the year of 2000, production of tobacco (25000 tonnes )  was less than than  production of tobacco in the year of 2001 by 30000 tonnes then In the year of 2002, production of tobacco started to decreased by 20000 tonnes then increased by 25000 tonnes In the year of 2003.

On the production of  Coffee
In the year of 2000, production of cofee (50000 tonnes ) was less than production of coffee in the year of 2001 (60000 tonnes), then the production of coffee started to decreased in the year of 2002 by 45000 tonnes and maintain it in the year of 2003  .

5. (a). Research problem is a question that researcher wants to answer or a problem that a researcher wants to solve.

  (b) . The following are the four sources of research problem 

      (i)  Personal experience

      (ii) Conclusion from various theories

      (iii) Literature reviews. Practical issues

      (iv) Deductive and inductive reasoning

  (c) The following are the four characteristics of research problem.
       (i)  The research problem must be carefully selected and come from the researcher’s mind.

       (ii)  Must be clear, precise and meaningful.

       (iii) . It must relate to the subject of interest e.g A Geographer can do a research on the following issues; Climate, soil, etc.

       (iv)  The research problem must be short and clear to avoid vague and ambiguity.

6. (a) chain survey is the surveying method in which linear measurements of an area are taken.

   (b)  The following are the main use of  equipments used in simple chain survey.

       (i)Pegs  made up of wood ,they normally have 40cm to 50 cm long and width of 4mm squares. It used for marking permanent stations.

       (ii)Cross staff Is a wood rod with about 6 feet long used to determine the right angle in survey line (to make off sets) 

      (iii)Arrows are made of steel wire of diameter 4mm and their ends are bent into a circle where red cloth is tied to facilitate visibility. They are used for showing points on the ground.

      (iv)Tape is made from fiberglass or a steel strip and is 10m, 20m or 30m in length graduated in 10mm divisions and numbered at each 100mm (10) divisions.It is used for measuring short distances 

      (v)Chain is made up of steel wire which is divided into links and togs (rings) to facilitate folding.It is used as a unit of measurement 

      (vi)Ranging rods  made of wood, their length is about 6-10 feet .they are marked red and white or black so as to be seen easily. Used to mark permanent station in the survey line.

     (vii)Field sheet used during field work to record data obtained. 

     (viii)An optical square a very simple geodetic instrument that is used to lay off angles that are multiples of 90° or of 45°.

  7. (a). Area covered by forest in km​ square​  by using grid square method.

          calculating area using the square method

       (i) Count the full square covered by lake Tanganyika on a map
                    Full square= 5

       (ii) Also count half square covered by Tanganyika on a map and divide it by 2 
                        Half square =   7÷2
                         Half square=3.5
       (iii) Add full square and half square result  obtained by divided half square by 2
       (iv) Convert map area into actual area
                         Scale =1:50000, this means 1cm = 1/2 km

                    Use this scale to calculate area  area covered by forest ( 1cm=1/2km)

                                       Square both side 1cm=1/2km to get relationship between cm and km in square unit.                   
                        (1cm) square= (1/2) square
                        1cm square = 0.25km square

        (v) find area of one square on the map.
                                    To find the area of one square on the map, take a rule and measure the width multiply by itself.
                                Area of square = wxw
                                      W= 2 so 
                                         A= 2x2
                                        Area of one square on a map = 4cm square

        (vi) find the area covered by forest 
                  1cm square =0.25 km square
                  4cm square = x

                              Cross multiplication
                           1xX= 4x 0.25
                               X= 1kmsquare

                  Convert 8.5square into kilometre square
                                 8.5x1km square= 8.5 km square

  Therefore Area covered by forest   = 8.5km square.

  (b) To measure the distance of the  railway line form grid references 040118 to 130122  using a sheet of paper.

               By using a piece of paper the map distance of railway is 20.Cm.

                  Scale on map = 1:50000
            Change. 1:50000 into kilometers.

            1km  = 100000cm
            X       = 50000cm
     100000x = 50000x1
                  x = 50000/100000
                  x =1/2 km (one a half)

So.   1Cm = 1/2 km
          20= X
          X=20x 1/2
         X= 10 km
  Therefore distance of the railway is 10 km

  (c) The nature of the relief of the area is hilly  highland

  (d) Physical features found on the map are

      (i)  hilly

      (ii) valley

      (iii) Plain land

  (e) Three economic activities taking place in the  area are
      (i)  Transport due to the presence of Tanzania Zambia Railway ( TAZARA) and underground pipeline TAZAMA

      (ii) communication  due to the presence of telephone line

      (iii)  Cultivation  due to the scattered cultivation.

8.  Study the photograph given below and then answer the questions that follow:

a) With two reasons, identify the type of the photograph    
High Oblique Photograph because of:    
    - It displays both top and side views of buildings  
    - Horizon is easily at the backward of the photographic area   
   - The area get larger from the foreground, then small to middle and backward of the photograph
    - The photograph taken when a camera is slanting at an angle less than 90°
   - The photographer is standing on an elevated ground and hold the camera on an angle towards the lower ground

b) Identify the type of the settlement pattern seen on the photograph  
   Nucleated Settlement Pattern because the buildings are seen to be compacted and close to one another

c) Name two economic importance of the area shown on the photograph
Manufacturing, industrial activities are common in urban area due to easy access to the market 
Trade, presence of large buildings indicate trading activities like hotels, banks and rented 
 buildings, and it is common activity in town areas
Revenue collected by government after rent their buildings boost economy of a country
Employment opportunity due to offices shown on the photograph

d) Explain two social and environmental problems that are likely to occur in the area
1. Environmental Pollution  like water, land, air and noise pollution due to high concentration of and various activities like manufacturing  
2. Emergence of Crimes like theft and robbery since in  urban areas there is high competition for jobs so many people become jobless  
3. Eruption of Diseases like cholera and HIV/AIDS due to high concentration of people and environmental pollution
4. Overpopulation

9. Forestry refers to  all activities related to the establishment  (in case of man planted trees), development and exploitation of forest.

    The following are the eight ways that may be adopted to solve the problems facing forestry in Tanzania. 

     (i). Reforestation or re planting of trees both local and exotic species in the depleted areas.

     (ii). The opening of new forest estates

     (iii). Establishment of game and forest reserves where the cutting of trees or hunting is completely restricted.

     (iv). Educating the people importance of sustainable use of forestry resources.

     (v) The government should make sure that the population control is encouraged in order to reduce over population which is dangerous to forestry resources.

     (vi). Use of other alternative energy resources e.g solar energy.

     (vii) Agricultural methods should be improved so as to encourage proper land use methods like shifting cultivation should be discouraged.

     (viii) Destocking (reducing the number of animals) should be encouraged among the pastoralists, because having too many animal leads to the destruction of vegetation.

  10. Shifting cultivation is the system in which a peasant keeps on shifting from one area to another as a result of soil exhaustion.
        The following are the eight characteristics of   shifting cultivation

      (i)More than one crop can be harvested in a plot

      (ii)  It is the oldest method of cultivation

      (iii) It is practiced when there is low population  for easy shifting and possession of a certain piece of land

      (iv) Peasant keeps on shifting from one area to another as a result of soil exhaustion.

      (v) The crops grown most of them being scanty crops

      (vi) It involves slashing and burning of bushes and grasses

      (vii) Production is for subsistence Simple tools are used like hand hoes because of low technology 

      (viii) The cultivators do not have permanent settlements since they expect to leave any time , sites are selected in the virgin forest and therefore tend to be fertile.

 11. Biodiversity refers to a variety of species of living organisms both plants and animals (flora and fauna).           Loss of biodiversity: Refers to the disappearance of different plants and animal species in a particular geographical unit or community.
           The following are the natural and human causes of loss of biodiversity
           1. NATURAL FACTORS.

       ( i )  global warming

       ( ii) Floods which kill most of the organisms

       (iii) Landslides and other types of mass wasting

       (iv) Earthquakes kill organisms in large number

           2. HUMAN FACTORS

       ( i ) Pollution, poison of air, water and soil lead to the death of living organisms.

       (ii ) Illegal fishing when people use dynamites, bombs and poisoning lead to death of fish and other organisms.

       (iii ) Poaching, this is the illegal killing of wild animals eg, killing of Elephants, Rhino and Zebra for various purposes.

       (iv) Wars; when wars breakout the weapons kill not only people but also other organisms.

 12. Settlement is the place where people live together and engage in various social, economic, and political activities. Example: industrial activities, Agricultural activities, educational activities.

        The following are the eight factors which lead to the growth of settlements in different parts of a country. 

        (i) Provision of social services, People migrate from their original places and live near areas where social services are easily available to them. Example of social services are health centres, schools, electricity and water supply.

        (ii) Agriculture is the major activity undertaken in rural areas.

        (iii)  Trading is a major activities under taken in urban areas.

        (iv)  Climate conditions, people settle in good climatic areas. Rainfall and temperature have a great influence from human settlement. Areas that receive abundant rainfall and favourable temperature attract more people. This is because people are able to engage in both subsistence and commercial farming such areas are Kilimanjaro, Mbeya, Ruvuma and Iringa region where there is abundant rainfall.

         (v) Relief, it is a strong factor influencing settlement. Gentle slopes are ideal areas for building houses as they are well drained. Steep stops are usually uninhabited because they have thin soils which inhibit growth of crops and pasture.

         (vi) Vegetation cover, vegetation is the total plants cover over an area. Thick vegetation discourages establishment of settlement. Dense forest such as Congo of central Africa and Amazon, in South America are not accessible. They may also be habitants for dangerous wild animals and disease carrying vectors.

         (vii)  Economic factor, people establish settlement in places which offer economic opportunities. Migration from rural to urban centres is mainly due to prospects for employment and trading opportunities. Mining activities also leads to the establishments of settlements for example development of Mwadui towns was the results of Mwadui Diamond mines.

         (viii) Cultural factors, some areas may be productive but due to some cultural beliefs people may be prohibited to establish settlements on such areas. Example mumbanitu forest in Njombe.