After the Second World War, the World experienced other threats to the World peace, the act of USA to bomb Japan was provocative to the World powers because it was not in any way a military strategy after all the war was almost coming to an end. It was nothing but USA military arrogance sending a clear signal to other powers, USSR in particular that she is military strong, this was the beginning of escalation of arms race which led to cold war.
The Cold War was a period of economic, political and military tension between the United States and Soviet Union from 1945 to 1991.
Or, cold war is a state of conflict between nations that does not involve direct military action but is pursued primarily through economic and political actions, propaganda, acts of espionage or proxy wars waged by surrogates.
Following the end of the Second World War, complications arose centering on the shifting of international power. The Soviet Union wanted to acquire additional territory while the United States attempted to limit the gains desired by the Soviets. This battle of ideologies resulted in increased national security, diplomatic tension and proxy wars between the two powerful nations
Cold War dominated the foreign policy agendas of both sides and led to the formation of two vast military alliances: The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), created by Western powers in 1949, and Warsaw Pact, established in 1955 by the Soviet. Although centred originally in Europe, the Cold War enmity eventually drew the United States and the USSR into local conflicts in almost every quarter of the globe. It also produced what became known as the Cold War arms race, an intense competition between the two superpowers led to accumulate advanced military weapons.
i. The reign of Mikhail Gorbachev who restricted society’s foreign policies.
Peace is the state of harmony that exist between/among societies, individuals or even worldwide. Or, Peace is the opposite of chaos, disharmony and conflicts.
Is the process of equipping for war/process of preparing for war with initials manufacturing of weapons for use in case of war.
Is the completion among nations in the process of equipping themselves for war.
Is the process of reducing, limiting, controlling or eliminating nations’ army forces and this can be done by international agreements like the strategic arms limitation treaties (SALT).
Factors for the Arm Race
1. Existence of the cold war between U.S.A and USSR with their respective camps, which was western, block under U.S.A and the eastern bloc under USSR; this caused the arm race because each camp was trying to manufacture more weapons hopping that one day the capitalist and the communist will fight.
2. The need to maintain the balance of power among nations of the world; so that no one nation should military be a threat to others so the super power learnt the situation which was caused by Britain and France when Britain was the master of military in the sea, and the France the master of military on land. Therefore in the 20th century nations wanted to avoid unequal balance of power which existed in Europe between France and Britain hence they involved arm race.
3. Due to self defense; the super powers of those days argued that the increase of arm race was due to protecting and defending themselves against their enemies and conflicts brought by the existence of cold war and formation of military alliances like NATO and war saw Pact for the eastern block.
4. Arm race was due to aggressive purposes. This true when we consider the threat from the western block led by USA under the umbrella of NATO in the weak nation e.g. USA military has been used to invade other countries like Libya in 1988 and 2011, Iraq several times, Pakistan, Somalia, panama and Afghanistan.
5. Arm race is due to make other countries fear the super powers; because of their military and economically strong tend to threatened the weak nation especially the LDC in order to agree with their interest like imposition of their rule, culture etc. which operate through neo colonialism e.g. countries fear U.S.A due to her strong military and economic which make U.S.A to use it as a symbol of power and supremacy in the world
6. Arm race was caused by the developed countries like U.S.A, Britain, USSR, Germany and France in looking for more influence and control in the LDC. E.g. according to those big powers saw the armament/arm race as the only way of increasing that capacity of influence and control the third world countries.
7. Arm race was also seen as an important strategy towards the third world crisis situation because the arm race could be used as the means to solve the problems in the LDC especially in occurrence of war in the world e.g. the nuclear weapons like atomic bombs could be used as a means of preventing the crisis.
The invasion of nuclear or atomic bombs was said to be a spark off (increase more) of the arm race because after USA tested her nuclear bombs in Mexico in 1945 which was made in 1942, USSR explored hers in 1949 and Britain did the same in 1952.
The Impacts of Arm Race to the World
1. It reduced the level of resources that could have been utilized in provisional of social and economic welfare of the people in the super powers and in the third world countries.
2. Many people had lost their lives/Occurrence of death due to use of nuclear chemical weapons and nuclear accidents such as in Nagasaki and Hiroshima atomic bombs dropped by U.S.A during WWII 1945, the Chernobyl disaster in soviet union (USSR) which caused untold biological bad consequences to life, the nuclear accident in Japan early to 2011 after the earth quack destroyed the manufacturing factory of nuclear weapons.
3. Led to environmental destruction following testing, giving disposal of nuclear arm race or toxic on the environment.
4. The arm race has turned the LDC as to market for dangerous weapon made super powers which led political instability in the LDC such as the outbreak of civil wars and interstate wars like in Burundi, Rwanda, Libya, Angola, Tunisia, DRC etc. but also the interstate wars like Iran vs. Iraq, north Korea vs. south Korea etc. but also the LDC had been a testing ground of nuclear weapons which led the destruction of environment and conflicts in the LDC.
5. The arm race has been prevented the outbreak of the wars among the super powers because the super powers know the consequences of it and therefore they tend to remain only with cold war politics.
6. The arm race has caused the problem of refugees; due to war emanated/fueled by the super powers in the process of arm race the problem of refugees tend to face the LDC which have turned to be the moments of the arms from the super powers e.g. refugees of Angola, Rwanda, Burundi, Liberia, DRC, Somalia, Libya, Tunisia, Egypt, Syria etc.
7. The arm races have led to the increase of budget/ money/ fund in buying of guns in the LDC, but it has also increased budget in the super powers in the process of arm races hence it is costly and consume a lot of money that the developed nation could have channeled to the LDC for more development instead of using money for arm race.
Attempts made towards Disarmament
1. Through agreements. E.g. through strategic arms limitation treaties (SALT) e.g. SALT ONE and SALT TWO, these were talks aimed at strategic arm limitation which involved in U.S.A and USSR, their talks started from November 1969 to may 1972 with the signing of SALT ONE by president Nixon of USA and president Brezhnev of USSR which was signed in Moscow.
2. Through using UN general assembly in 1982 during the UN special disarmament session which called for elaboration and gradual implementation of nuclear disarmament program.
Contents of Salt One
1. It agreed on limitation of defensive ballistic missile systems.
2. Involve the code of conduct for dealing with the crisis situation in the third world countries.
Importance of Salt One
1. Helps the two powers to improve their relations.
2. The two powers reached agreements on the nuclear weapons especially putting or observing on reduction nuclear weapons for nations intending to manufacture more nuclear weapons.
3. The big powers played more active role in the LDC on the problem facing them due to arms.
This began in 1974 conducted by President Jimmy Carter of USA and Brezhnev of USSR; however the USA senator refused to ratify because the agreement aimed at putting more efforts on a number of missile launched/ established and bombers possessed by the two powers.
The Washington Treaty of 1972
This aimed at putting limitation of naval armament by determine the ration for allocation of ships among the major naval powers of U.S.A, Britain, Japan, France, Italy and USSR.
The Test Ban Treaty between U.S.A and USSR
This was resulted after the Cuban missile crisis whereby U.S.A and USSR had a direct confrontation on the missile put in Cuba by Russia.
Impact of Collapse of USSR with the Socialist Block and the Arm Race
The USSR with eastern bloc which climaxed in early 1990s had a lot of impact on arm race as elaborated below;
1. It led to end up of cold war which was a chief source of arm race between USSR and U.S.A.
2. The war saw Pact became incapable of making weapons and continue with race in making weapons. This led to the end of the war saw pact and USSR after its collapse which led to remain Russia also join NATO which was pure a military alliance of the west.
3. The socialist blocks after the collapse of USSR remained free from the competition of arm race and started to criticize and fight for disarmament.
4. The U.S.A is now the dominant super power in the world; which has increased her military capacity to highest level hence U.S.A has remained as UNIPOLAR calling herself as the policy of the world e.g. U.S.A has different military bases in almost corner of the world trying to defend and protect her interest which manifested itself in neo – colonialism in the LDCs.
The Problem of Controlling the Arm Race
1. Absence of mutual trust; the major powers have failed to trust each other as regarded to armament inspections and control hence most disarmament negotiation have failed.
2. Different propaganda between the east and the west on respecting treaties on disarmament and appealing to the international community; this have been a cheating program/ bogus agreement or cheating program in such as at camps try to use so as they can increase arms for their interest hence control problem or fail to control arm races.
3. The collapse of USSR; this has caused a problem on controlling arm race because U.S.A and her allies are now monopolizing the nuclear weapons e.g. USA forced other countries to with draw from manufacturing of dangerous weapons e.g. Iraq, Iran, Syria, north Korea etc. this has been taken as unfair as USA does not respect the disarmament treaties anywhere instead USA and her allies are increasing nuclear weapons each year hence difficult to control the arm race.
4. The control problem; there has been a control problem on the matters relating with disarmament because the super power especially U.S.A is the leading on arm race e.g. 1946 the UN atomic energy commission declared a nuclear disarmament because U.S.A had monopoly over atomic powers but UN was unable.
Why disarmament/ why fighting for disarmament?
The struggle for disarmament through different methods like treaties, destruction of weapon or consultation, conventions etc. was due to the following;
(i) Fear of spread of dangerous weapons to the third world; where these dangerous weapons were in danger with the global peace and security.
(ii) Fear of possible nuclear accidents that may happen due to mishandling of weapons as what has been happened in other places of the world e.g. in January 1968 B52 bomber crushed in green land and nuclear weapons in it (B52) fell into sea, the weapons released dangerous radioactive materials in water around green land in 1979, there was nuclear accident in island nearby New - York in 2011 in Japan.
(iii) Fear of ending up with survival in case of the outbreak of the nuclear war, it destroys the whole world.
(iv) Fear to reduce the level of resources that could have been utilized in provision of social and economic welfare of the people in the super powers and in the LDCs.
(v) Fear of environmental degradation following testing, firing or disposal of nuclear arms/toxins.
(vi) Fear of turning the LDCs as a market for the super powers in the term of buying nuclear weapons.
(vii) Fear of the outbreak of interstate war which would result the refugees problem especial in the LDCs.
(viii) Fear of the increase of enmity and conflicts among different nations of the world.
(ix) Fear of losing more money in different parts of the world whether in the super powers or LDCs because a lot of money could be used to manufacture these weapons in the super powers but also the LDCs may use their money to buy their weapons.
(x) Fear of revenge; if countries may involve in arm race therefore a situation of revenge may occur because of confidence among nations possessing nuclear weapons.
Types of Disarmament
1. General disarmament.
- This involved the efforts of all nations in disarmament program.
2. Local disarmament.
- This involves the limited number of countries in disarmament program.
3. Quantitative disarmament.
- This refers to reduction of all types of weapons.
4. Qualitative disarmament.
- This concentrate on specific category of weapons
|A cartoon depicting Kennedy and Khrushchev at loggerheads in 1962|
Manifestation of the Arm Race
1. In the formation of military alliance in the world e.g. war saw Pact Vs NATO, SEATO, CENTO, ANZUS, OAS etc. all these enmity/hostility military alliances show the presence of arm races.
2. Formation of military bases especially in LDC by the big powers e.g. US – military bases in east Africa, Mogadishu, Saudi Arabia etc. and USSR in Cuba for her ballistic missiles.
3. Through the Cuban missile crisis in 1962 when USA were about to fight with USSR over Cuba, this happened when USA was forcing USSR to withdraw her missile in the communist Cuba so as defend Cuba from American threat this was due to the fact that USA has been threatening to overthrow Cuba since 1959, Cuban revolution led by Fidel Castro who made Cuba a communist state and nationalized all American investments in Cuba hence Cuba created a strong relationship with Russia.
4. The Taiwan crisis; in which Taiwan was protected and defended by U.S.A through her army e.g. all the elections in Taiwan was conducted under the supervision of US military because china wanted to interfere the election in Taiwan but through military threat of USA which warned china not to interfere china surrendered or gave up.
THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS
The Cuban missile crisis was a major direct confrontation between the USA and USSR that occurred on October 1962 over the issues of the soviet which had supplied missile in installation in Cuba. Sometimes this is referred as a Caribbean crisis or October crisis and the Cuban missiles crisis is regarded by many countries of the world as a closest approach to nuclear war.
The Cuban crisis began when the U.S.A discovered that Cuba had secretly installed soviet missiles, which was able to carry nuclear weapons and these nuclear weapons to hit targets across most of the U.S.A. Hence the discovery led to spark off/ increase the enmity between U.S.A and USSR whereby U.S.A imposed a naval blockage of Cuba and demanded that the USSR must remove her missiles.
The Genesis/Origin of the Cuban Missile Crisis
1. In 1960, a tension began between Cuba and U.S.A; this led to the soviet President Nikita Khrushev began planning to supply secretly missiles in Cuba, which could produce/deliver nuclear weapons, assuming that U.S.A would not take any action.
2. By 1962 the missile crisis was spread in U.S.A because of reports that USSR was channeling weapons to Cuba and in September 1962 US president John F Kennedy warned the soviets that “the greatest issue would arise” due to press of dangerous weapons in Cuba.
3. In October 14, 1962 the US planners flying over in Cuba investigated on the ballistic missiles and on October 16, 1962 the US intelligence officers presented President Kennedy with photograph showing nuclear missile bases under construction in Cuba. The photo suggested for the preparation of two which were the medium range ballistic missile which was able to travel about 1100 neutral miles. Intermediate range ballistic missiles which was able to reach targets at distance of about 2200nm (4100 Km) this missiles placed most major US – cities such as Los Angles, Chicago and new York city within a range of nuclear attack.
4. Kennedy saw the evidence of nuclear capable bombers; hence Kennedy faced a situation with potentially grave consequences. However he had no clear choice on the action to take against Russia though he knew that an attack on soviet is like to attack the global nuclear war that would result in loss of millions of life of the people.
5. U.S.A promised to defend the city of Berlin in Germany which was under the pressure following the threats from the communist. East Germany in which Khrushchev had threatened to take over the west Berlin and told Kennedy that he was willing to bring the matter to the point of war e.g. president Khrushchev set a deadline of 13 days for the resolutions of the matter.
6. Before the Cuban missile crisis began Kennedy and his advisers believed that US nuclear superiority would prevent any aggressive soviet moves; but when the photographs of missiles arrived Kennedy and his experts agreed that the weapons might have placed in Cuba to keep USA from going to war over West Berlin. However Kennedy continued in believing in his nuclear superiority for him “doing nothing about the missiles would only increase the danger in another war threatening crisis later in the year this time over Berlin”.
7. The Cuban missile crisis lasted only 30 days but it had very important psychological and historical significance.
|Cuban Missile Crisis: The distances from Cuba to various cities on the North American continent.|
Reasons for the USSR launching of Nuclear Missile in Cuba
1. To stop USA attempt to over throw communist government of Cuba under Fidel Castro. USA attempted to overthrow Fidel Castro in two movements.
a) The bay of pigs invasion
- It was an unsuccessfully action by a CIA trained force of Cuban exiles to invade southern Cuba; it was an attempt to overthrow Fidel Castro in April 1962. But the movement proved failure after being defeated by Cuban trained soldiers.
b) Operation Mangoose (The Cuban Project)
-This project was also known as special group Augmented
- It was a program of central intelligent Agency (CIA) Convert operations develop during the early years of president of U.S.A John F. Kennedy. On November 30, 1961, the aggressive convert operation was launched against the communist government of Fidel Castro.
Therefore, even that movement failed again USSR launched the Nuclear Missile in Cuba so as to threaded US interference on Cuba internal affairs.
2. It was also a reaction toward western European and US a moment process. USSR was threatened by the military advancement of Western Europe and the USA. Far instance in 1958 United Kingdom deployed. Thor IRBM (International Range Ballistic Missiles)
Also Jupiter IRBM in Italy an Turkey in 1961. Also USA built 100 missiles having capacity to strila Moscow with Nuclear war heads.
3. Military strategic reason to USSR. Cuba is very near to USA; therefore, nuclear missile in Cuba was a serious threat to the USA.
How the Confrontation Ended
The confrontation ended on October 28, 1962 when President John F. Kennedy of USA and secret agreement with Khrushchev (Nikita) of USSR. Publicity they agreed that Soviet Union would dismantle their offensive weapons in Cuba and return them to Soviet Union, subject to UN verification in exchange for a USA public declaration and agreement to never invade Cuba.
|Fidel Castro (Cuba) and Nikita Khrushchev (Russia)|
THE CREATION OF THE STATE OF ISRAEL (1948) AND THE PALESTINIAN
Historical Background of Palestinian
The origin of the problem went back almost 2,000 years when most of the Jewish were driven out of Palestine, which was their homeland by Romans. In fact, small communities of Jews stayed in Palestine and over the following 1700 years, there was a gradual trickle of Jews returning from exile. The movement of Jewish to return to their land of Palestine is known as Zionism. Therefore Zionism represents itself as a political movement concerned principally with the establishment of Jewish state in Palestine.
British Foreign Minister Arthur Balfour in 1917 promised to create a none for the Jew in “Balfour Declaration” Palestine became a British mandate to replace Ottoman Empire, which was suppressed during the First World War. Therefore, large numbers of Jewish began to arrive in Palestine and Arabs protests greatly the exodus of Jewish settlement.
1. UNO implemented the partition plan of Palestine in 1947 in order to create the state of Israel
2. The key objective of UNO to divide Palestine to reconcile peace among the Palestine Arabs an the Jewish
3. Furthermore, UN also was sympathized by the mass genocide of Jews by Adolf Hitler in Germany. Therefore, creation of the Jewish state was an attempt to rescue the Jews from mistreatment.
Impacts of Declaration of New State of Israel (1948)
1. It led to the growth of conflict between Palestinians Arabs and the Jewish due to the land question.
2. Emergence of suicide bombing attacks to the Jewish by the Palestinian Arabs.
3. Interference of USA and the western country to the Middle East politics and diplomacy. Mostly they intend to mediate/are conciliate are bring peace but internally to defend the Jews.
4. Formation of ant-Jews organization and military wings. These were formed by the Palestinians to foster liberation movement e.g.: P.L.O.
5. Officially it ended the British man dale over Palestine.
ARAB – JEWISH WARS (1956 -1973)
These wars were the manifestation of inherent conflict between the Arabs nations and the Jewish due to the question of land on Palestine. On the other land the Jewish were on the defence motive to restore their land which they grabbed from the Palestinians.
Causes of Arabs – Jewish Wars
1. Proclamation of Israel state (1947) (1948) implemented
The united nation resolved the decision to divide Palestine and declared the independent state of Israel. There fare the Arab would denied the existence of Israel state on Arab land hence the act break of the wars.
The united nation resolved the decision to divide Palestine and declared the independent state of Israel. There fare the Arab would denied the existence of Israel state on Arab land hence the act break of the wars.
2. Jewish expansion on Arab land
The influx of Jewish settlers began during the rule of British on Palestine therefore before British withdraw all from Palestine, Jewish invaded Tiberias (April 19, 1948), Haifa (April Jaffa (April 28), The Arab quarters in Jerusalem (April 30), Beisan (May 3) Safad (May 10) and Acre (May 14)
3. External force, Arab –Jewish war was influenced by external forced. These forces involved the big nation for example USSR and (Czechoslovakia provided weapons to Arab countries while USA Britain and France provided weapons to Jewish.
4. Religious factor, most of the Arabs are Muslims while the Jewish. Are Christians. The Arabs believe in Jihad, the holy war to defend Muslims and Island and the Jewish believe in crusade war. Therefore conflict was inevitable.
5. Racism, Jews believe that they are superior race chosen by God and have the rights to dominate all interior race hence conflict. And on the other hand the Arabs land is an insult to their race hence they declared to defend the Palestinian Arabs.
|Conflict in 1967 shifted Israel’s sense of security and hardened positions on both sides|
Impacts of Arab-Jewish Wars
1. Death. Many people in the Middle East died due to several attacks from both sides, many Jews and Arabs died.
2. The grab of Arab wealth by the Jews. Jews took an advantage of the war to grab Arab wealth during the war, these included livestock’s and minerals.
3. Displacement of Arab settlement. Most of the Palestinian Arabs lost their land in the hand of Jews Eg: West bank Gaza
4. Increase of number of refugees, there was increasing number of refugees because most of the Palestinian. Arabs left their lands to the neighboring countries. (About 711,000 refugees). Eg: In Jordan
5. Disintegration of United Arab front opposition to Israel. After the war many Arab nations started to disintegrate to oppose Israel. For example, Egypt signed a peace treaty with Israel (Camp David).
6. Destruction of Arab economy, buildings and infrastructures were totally destroyed.
CAMP DAVID AND EGYPTIAN ISRAEL PEACE TREAT (1978 -79)
1. Through the 1970’s Arab –Israel negotiations continued to dominate the agenda of Middle East International Politics.
2. The United States, seeing the effects that Arabs Israel conflict could have on world economy pressed for solution to the conflict.
3. The camp David refers to the reconcile on the issue of middle east crisis
4. Factor that led to the peace agreement were the frequent wars between the Jews and the Arabs.
5. During the camp David many Arabs nations refused to attend the agreements at camp David, but support of the agreements
6. The support of Egypt led to the 1978 peace treaty between Israel and Arabs.
Agreements of Egyptian –Jews Peace Treaty
1. Israel agreed to return Sinai to Egypt, during the war Jewish conquer the land in Egypt as the result Egypt wanted back her land and was affected in 1982 when the land was returned to Egypt.
2. They had to negotiate Palestinian autonomy measures in the Israel occupied west Bank and Gaza strip.
3. They had to reconcile Egyptian Israel diplomatic relations. They agreed to establish diplomatic relationship among them
Impact of the Camp David Agreements
1. If led to the division of Arab state e.g. Jordan, Saudi Arabia and Egypt become close to Western countries and USA
2. Camp David did not become the basis for comprehensive settlement of Arab Israel conflict.
3. It led to the reduction of conflict among Arabic and Jewish. That means the consequence was to radically alter the strategic balance in Arab –Israel conflict.
4. Increase of confidence to Israel. Started to gain confidence due to the decrease of Arab opposition.
5. Camp David cemented the US- Egyptian relationship and isolated Soviet Union in the Middle East.
|Camp David 1978. From left: Egyptian President Anwar al-Sadat; US President Jimmy Carter; and Israeli Prime Minister Menachim Begin|