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Friday, August 17, 2018

HISTORY 2: FORM SIX: Topic 6 - THE EMERGENCE OF U.S.A AS A NEW CAPITALIST SUPER POWER

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TOPIC 6: THE EMERGENCE OF U.S.A AS A NEW CAPITALIST SUPER POWER

Previously, the Western European nations were the powerful nations which dominated the World, among them were Britain, France, Germany and others. These nations dominated the World superiority for many years if not centuries specifically Britain which ranked to the workshop of the World. Since the rise of capitalism in the 15th century, European nations dominated the globe. Up to the 19th century, they colonized most of the World, specifically the Third World Countries.
USA was a British colony which got her independence in 4th July 1776 after years of battle or war with the British troops. From 20th century USA started to rise as a leading capitalist nation.

The period after the end of the Second World War saw the emergence of the United States as the pre-eminent military and economic power in the world. Every part of the world came under the purview of US interests. The US also viewed herself as a great “moral force” in the world. Many Americans liked to think that the period in which they were living could quite legitimately be described as the “American Century”.

The White House in Washington, USA


Factors for Rise of U.S.A as a Leading Super Power

1. U.S.A did not directly involved in both world wars of 1914 - 1918, 1939 – 1945.
Due to the outbreak of world wars; U.S.A gained a lot and these gave U.S.A to build her economy and industries without any disturbance for many years because no war fought in U.S.A soilhence no destruction was ever experienced on U.S.A soil e.g. no destruction of factories, banks, infrastructure, agricultural and trade but also during the war USA supplied war equipments such as war clothes and money to opposition sides, this led U.S.A to get prosperity and wealth also U.S.A provided employment even to women all these enabled U.S.A to build her economy and emerged as a super capitalist leading nation.

2. Extension / provision of U.S.A Marshal plan to war affected European nations.
All European nations which was affected by the war was helped by U.S.A under the Marshal plan as an economic recovery program to all affected European nations therefore the Marshal plan gave a lot of U.S.A dollars approximately to 22 billion U.S.A dollars to Western European countries in term of grants and loans but also U.S.A provided goods; in return all of these nations were to pay back with interest likewise under the Marshal plan U.S.A persuaded the European colonial masters to decolonize her colonies through “U.S.A open door policy” as a conditions for European nation to get Marshal plan, this policy intended to make U.S.A to get Areas in colonies for her to invest, to get market, raw materials and to get cheap labor under the new USA colonialism, all these enabled U.S.A to raise as a leading super power.

3. Maintenance of U.S.A isolation policy.
This policy made U.S.A to stay away from European wars, political conflicts and quarrels this intended to make U.S.A to concentrate on her domestic affairs. The policy which started from 1796 by President George Washington and in 1823 by Monroe Doctrine declared Europe to stay out of U.S.A, this for a long time enabled U.S.A to concentrate on building her own economy domestically e.g. building strong industries, infrastructure, agricultural period but also the policy European power to depend on America for their economic development hence U.S.A with isolation policy managed to rise as a strong capitalist nation is the world.

4. The fall of British super powerless.
This gave a room for U.S.A to harvest super profit for her development; after the collapse of British hegemony U.S.A exploited the former British colony by using the back door whereby those former colonies of British were turned on a place for U.S.A to invest, get market for manufactured goods, cheap labor without any competition hence the profit from those former British colonies enabled U.S.A to rise as the leading super power economically etc.

5. The collapse of communism in the former USSR.
In early 1990’s gave a room for U.S.A to rise as a super power in the world. This was because USSR and U.S.A existed as enemy countries with the cold war politics due to different ideologies i.e. capitalism and socialism but after the collapse of communalism in former USSR witnessed many communist follower in different part of the world abandoned socialism and following capitalism in their nations, this gave a chance for U.S.A to dominate in the world hence U.S.A role as a leading super power.

6. The formation of multinational cooperation and financial institution like IMF and World Bank. Majority of these multinational co operations based on U.S.A therefore they have to implement all investment of U.S.A in different parts of the world because these multinational co operations, military organization i.e. (NATO) are sponsored by the U.S.A to implement the policy of U.S.A, therefore many nations have to welcome these multinational cooperation and financial institution because of weak economic base hence U.S.A rose as a leading capitalist power.

7. Different nature of U.S.A population.
U.S.A had different people from different origin and different back ground in different part of the world including Jews, French, British, Africans, Arabs and Chinese; these people have different knowledge of technologies and science hence they helped U.S.A to build her own economy e.g. Majority of these are technicians, technologist, scientist and others have invested in big industries and big farm which all these helper U.S.A to rise as a leading super power in the world.

8. The capital obtained from British after independence.
British industries, banks, plantation, infrastructure etc, after the American was taken by U.S.A to become a good beginning of U.S.A to become rich so the wealth of British was used domestically in America and after WWII U.S.A become the leading super power in the world.

9. Slave trade.
U.S.A was the major beneficiaries in horrible trade human trafficking whereby this slave trade helped U.S.A to become a leading capitalist nations due to slaves supplied cheap labor in plantations, mines industries invested in America, slaves produced a lot of raw materials for industries established in America. Slaves involved in construction and development parts, harbors, infrastructures and slaves acted as the source of market in U.S.A, all these enabled U.S.A to rise as the leading super power in the world.




DECLINE OF EUROPEAN CAPITALISM.

Reasons for the Decline of European Capitalism
1. European power were active participants in first and second world war (1914 -1918,1939-1945)The wars left the European economy was serious catastropher. The imperialist nation included Britain, German, France and Belgium.

2. The Western European imperialist states were battle field. That means the war was fought on the land field. That means the war was fought on the land of European nations therefore there was mass killings of the people and destruction of properties

3. The post second world war, left the European states highly in debted particullary by the U.S.A billion dollars were given to Britain from 1941 to the end of the second world war in 1945. Through the land lease act of 1941, caugress authorized the safe exchange or lease of arms and other equipments to Britain.

4. The Great depression of 1929-1933 before this Britain had suffered a number of depression such as economic depression of 1837/38 and 1873/1950. Which weakend her economy. Therefore, the Great depression of 1929-33, Re European Economy in serious catastropher Eg: In France the Great depression arrived later and last longer than any where in the western world. On the older land U.S.A despite the fact that she was badly affected the implemented immediate measured to solve the problem by imposing New deal policy.

5. The decline of colonial system after WWII in 1945 Africa there were the rise of mass Nationalism and also at the same time in Asia many colonies started to demand independence Eg: British lost India (1947), Pakistan(1948) and Burma (1948) also had invested much in the colonies like Canada, Australia India and Newzeland. So the independence of these colonies meant that Britain has to lose her market and invest.

6. Too many colonies. So it was burden to them according to the U.S.A policy eg:Portugal had Angola, Mozambique, Guinea Bissau e.t.c.

Impacts of Decline of European Capitalism

1. The rise of U.S.A as a super power of the world. This is due to the fact that U.S.A was not active participate in first and second world war.

2. Decolonization of African countries due to fail of colonial officers to run their colonies.

3. Spread of democracy in the world. Many African countries introduce liberal democracy with multipartism.

4. Introduction of new policies in third world countries such as structural adjustment program (SAP)


U.S.A ECONOMIC PROGRAM TO EUROPE i.e. MARSHALL PLAN - 1947

Marshall Plan was European economic recovery programmed proposed by George C. Marshall (The secretary of the state in 1947 with the aim of helping (aiding) the war affected (ruined) European nations to revive their economics.
OR
War an American plan to spread dollar imperialism by providing economic assistance to revive the economies of the European who was affected by the war.

Origin
The plan was drafted in June 1947 by George C. Marshall who called it a policy of cooperative European revive i.e. The European economic recovery program.

George C. Marshall

Objective of Marshall Plan

1.The plan needed to reconstruct the devastated (affected) European economy because the war demonized industries, farms, transport, schools, banks, hospitals, Miner , trader etc.

2.The American needed to strengthen her markets for her manufactured goods abroad because at home (U.S.A) was facing over production crisis and she needed a place to dump her manufactured goods and capital.

3.The plan helped European economies with the intention of making European nations not to follow under communism or socialism.

4. The plan aimed to retail the Western European country as a health trading particular with U.S.A in the capitalist world.

Terms / Condition of the Plan

1. U.S.A gave/provided a lot of money approximately more than 22 US billion dollars to western European nations in terms of grants and loans, also U.S.A provide and manufactured goods with the intention of reviving European economies in return Western, European countries world pay back the debts on agreed period of time with interest.

2. The European colonial masters were persuaded to decolonize their colonies as a condition to get loans and grant otherwise they would not get the loan from U.S.A.

Signing the Marshall Plan in 1947

Significance of the Marshall Plan / Loan

1. The plan consolidated US economic domination over Europe which made us to strengthen her imperialism with all her multinational co-operations, financial institution and military organization in Europe.

2. U.S.A was able to rescue war affected economy of Western Europe whereby Western countries were able to rehabilitate their economies. In this plan U.S.A with her open door policy towards investment and trading activities in free zones abroad become practical whereby the plan managed to make the colonialist to change their way of exploiting the colonies due to the fact that through this plan US come with another way of exploitation under the Neo – colonialism whereby all the former colonies were exploited by U.S.A under the back door of neo – colonialism.

3. The plan made U.S.A to start different military organizations abroad to safeguard invests in different parts of the world e.g. SEATO, CENTO, OCAS, NATO, OAS, and military bases established in Mombasa Kenya, Kuwait, and Pakistan.

4.The capital from U.S.A to European nations started to be re-invested in European nations to recover the effect of the war, also others were reinvested in colonies so as to recovery from economic crisis in the metropolitan and to enable the metropolitan countries to payback the debt to U.S.A hence it increase exploitation in the colonies.

5. The plan made U.S.A economic strength in the world which accelerated her to assume as a leading position in the capitalist world (superior power) replacing Britain. This led the financial center to move from London to Washington.

6. The plan made U.S.A to start offering not only money but also machinery, technical assistance and raw materials in different parts of the world especially in capitalist nation which all these strengthen the economy of U.S.A.

Factors Leading the Great Boom on 1920,s in U.S.A

During the period of 1919 up to 1924 the economy of USA in comparison to other nations was much stable this is because of the benefits she got during the WWI of 1914 – 1918 hence U.S.A benefited much in the WWI because of the followings.

1. USA was not participating full in the WWI. This made USA to increase her production because there was no fought in American land.

2. During the war U.S.A was the supplied of food stuffs, war equipment and raw materials to fighting nations. Being paid a lot of money U.S.A enjoyed a big and good market for fighting nations during war time hence she government a lot of money or interest.

3. During the war U.S.A exports increased from 2.4 billion us dollar to 7.4 bill us dollar.

4. By 1920 U.S.A had half output of the world coal extraction,¾ of the world steel,2/5 of the world oil oxidation etc. these enabled U.S.A to get a lot of money and profit from her selling, this increased the wealth in U.S.A and expanded market for US minerals.

5. From 1924 – 1929 U.S.A enjoyed economic boom, because of a lot of elements in the field of manufacturing industries and agricultural industries like Electronic motorbike, film industry, Radio industry and agricultural production also increased which led U.S.A to start looking for markets for her agricultural production in the world hence from 1920’s –1929 U.S.A economy was much stable and led U.S.A to be known as a period of economic boom.
                        
Effects of U.S.A Great Boom of 1920’s

From 1920’s – 1933 after U.S.A had enjoyed the economic boom, the following of U.S.A started to face some crisis and was not stable due to economic depression. Economic depression in U.S.A was resulted by the followings:-

1. Over production of commodities and agricultural production (raw materials).
USA continued to produce more and more because of the market was not stable due to the impact of the war, hence they fail to get market to absorb all manufactured goods and commodities from USA. These lead to over production of raw materials and goods.

2. Protectionism policy.
European nations which were the main markets for U.S.A manufactured goods and raw material started to adopt protectionism policy. In order to protect their industries and their farmers who had started to produce again by using the loan from U.S.A, U.S.A Learned markets in European countries which led U.S.A her economy to undergo depression.

3. The loss of market.
U.S.A loss market for her manufactured goods and raw materials due to different reasons including adaptation of protectionism policy for European countries hence over production in U.S.A.

4. Unemployment. Due to occurrence of this U.S.A industries were closed, farmers were not producing in high capacity fearing of over production; traders, business men were not also trade here and there all these led to depression in economy of U.S.A.

5. Close of financial institutions. Financial institution was closed because people who borrowed money from the bank did not pay back as a result of banks to undergo bankrupt.

6. Closure of industries. Great depression led to close of industries because industrialist feared loss over period of manufactured goods which had caused lack of market among the industries hence industries was closed.

7. Poor provision of social services.

Over production of commodities made many industries in USA fail to get market from the people


THE GREAT ECONOMIC DEPRESSION 1929 – 1933

This is an economic crisis within the capitalist economy which is caused by over production starting from 1929 – 1933.

Characteristics / Features of G.E.D of 1920 – 1933.

1. Existence of high inflations.
2. Mass unemployment due to lack of economic activities.

3. Low purchasing power among the population because of unemployment.
4. Protectionism policy; whereby different nations adopted various policies to domestic market protection.

5. It characterized by famine, starvation and hunger hence death of many people.
6. Low production of industrial goods and general fall prices in a long run.

7. Closure of financial institutions i.e. banks and insurance companies.
8. Poor provisional of social services and closure of industries.

Causes of G.E.D

1. Effects of the WWI of 1914 – 1918.
This led to the decline of European nation while economy of U.S.A was gain momentum at the end of the war the purchasing power of European nations declined while production of raw materials and commodities increased. In U.S.A production become non sellable and profitless which accelerated to price fractuation in U.S.A hence this led to G.E.D of 1929 – 1933.

2. Over production.
U.S.A produced manufactured goods because U.S.A thought that her markets were stable as it was before and during WWI e.g. U.S.A produced more food, zinc, copper, cocoa etc. This led to the fall of process in U.S.A and European nation were not able to absorb all manufactured goods this led several industries bankrupt and closed, farmers also were not producing more because they had no money to run agricultural activities, all these led to profit less among the formers and industrialist hence the G.E.D in U.S.A.

3. Socialist revolution of 1917.
Russia introduced the socialist revolution after the Bolshevik revolution of 1917 whereby began to spread different parts of the world, this led imperialist nations to lose markets to those socialist nations, hence over production of raw materials and manufactured goods in USA and the fall prices which led to the occurrence of G.E.D.

4. The effect of protectionist policy.
Immediately after the WWI U.S.A was economically stable which helped other European countries to revive their own economies, however the European countries used the loans from U.S.A to restrict their industries and stabilize the economy & at the same time European nations initiated protectionist policy to defend their industries and agricultural production, this led USA to lose market in European nations hence it increased agricultural productions and industrial productions in U.S.A leading to overproduction, profitless among the farmers and industrialist hence the G.E.D in U.S.A.

5. The collapse of the New York exchange in Oct 1929.
Because this had a lot of impacts on U.S.A economy e.g. the poor people spend their savings to buy few shares while shares were not sold due to lack of money among the traders and workers. Also stock exchange lost value whereby shares were sold on credits, banks were run bankrupt due to the fact did not return the money because shares were not sold as a result links were closed, this led to unemployment to the people worked in industries and financial institutions, also farmers who borrowed money from the banks to buy shares did not return the money to banks because shares lost value and were not sold, asa result of farmers to undergo crisis and their farms were taken by bankers due to the failure of paying back the debt hence G.E.D in U.S.A

The struggling mother of a migrant family at a temporary camp in California during the Great Depression

Effect of G.E.D World Wide

1. Industrial production dropped severely.
This is because there was the fall of industrial and agricultural production hence industries and agricultural sector were producing under their capacity.

2. Fall of process of raw materials and manufactured and goods which accelerated to propping of agricultural production and commodities.

3. Unemployment where by many workers were sucked or taken away from their work so as to reduce the cost of production.

4. Low wages and salaries to those few remained employed.

5. Fall of international trade; this is due to protectionism policy but also accelerated same countries to reduce custom duties in order to attract traders.

6. Currencies lost their values e.g. German Dutch Mark.

7. Most of the imperialist countries started to adopt protectionism policy in order to protect their domestic market, industries and agricultural sector.

8. The fall of purchasing power because many people had unemployed and countries declined their economy.

9. The rise of dictatorship in the world especially in Italy, Germany and Japan where by directors in those nations used the effect of G.E.D to mobilize people and get to leadership.

10. GED finalized almost the decline of Britain super powerness.

11. It led to reduction of public servicesin order to reduce the cost of administration.
12. Rise of dictatorship in Europe and Japan.

Effect of G.E.D in Africa

1. The fall prices of raw materials.

2. Massive unemployment because Africans who were employed in colonial sectors majority of them were sucked because colonialist faced crisis.

3. Low wages paid to few employed people in colonial sectors.

4. It led to intensification of exploitation/high exploitation of Africa resources because the colonialist exploited more the African resources in order to compensate the problem of crisis in their countries.

5. Reduction of social services in the colonies in order to reduce the cost of administration.

6. The increase of taxation in order colonialist to get money from colonies to revive their economy.

7. The fall of purchasing power in the colonies.
8. The rise of prices of manufactured goods in the colonies.

9. Increased the struggle for independence in Africa due to the effects of G.E.D in the colonies like exploitation.

10. The formation of cooperative unions/societies in order to demand for their rights like high wages, good working condition, high prices for their raw material etc.

Effect of G.E.D in Impact in U.S.A

1. Farmers of medium and small sizes were affected following the fall prices of their raw materials, thus led them to fail to pay the rent they took from the bank hence forced them to sell their land and remain tenants.

2. The financial system were also affected which led to the collapse of New York stock exchange and bankrupt of many banks reg. It was estimated that by 1932, ½ of the total bank had run bankrupt.

3. Unemployment, Many Americans were unemployed due to the effects of G.E.D whereby it was estimated that almost 17 mill of people were jobless in America & in New York alone 25 mill were jobless.

4. The fall process of raw materials. This caused farmers to reduce quantities productivity e.g. wheat and barley so as to create the scarcity of raw materials.

5. The decline of industrial period, this led industries to start producing under their capacity fearing over production of manufacturing goods.

Unemployment


Qn: Why Russia was not Affected by G.E.D of 1929 – 1933?

1. Withdrawing of Russia from WWI of 1914 –1918.
This led Russia to concentrate on production and building her own economy for so long and stopped Russia to spend more in the war likewise but also Russia did not pay for war damage.

2. Protection policy.
Russia did not import and export goods from any capitalist nation. It avoided the direct contact with capitalist in trading system.

3. Good leadership of Russia leaders like Lenin, Joseph Stalin.
The policy of these leaders was to build Russia and use resources available effectively and not depending from the capitalist nation.

4 No over production of goods for competition with the capitalist. This enabled Russia to produce goods which could be used by only Russians in order to build their own economy and not otherwise.

5. The Bolshevik revolution of 1917. This brought socialism and useful shearing of production, this led Russia to use production for all people in Russia societies and not for the capitalist.

6. Russia had no colonial empire. This avoided Russia to have more over production to spend in the colonies as the capitalist produced hence Russia had to produce for the consumption of all people in Russian society which did not learn to over production of manufactured goods.


THE NEW DEAL POLICY

Refers to the effort/programs taken by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt to rescue/pull the U.S.A out of G.E.D of 1929 – 1933 which began in U.S.A after the collapse of New York stock exchange. Roosevelt who become the president of U.S.A after U.S.A being affected by the G.E.D he made a lot of efforts to rescue the economy of U.S.A out of the G.E.D, he become the President of U.S.A 4.03, 1932 where he promised as “ I pledge myself to the New Deal to American people” this was the first opening speech, Roosevelt was expressing the Americans to be confident with him on solving the problems of G.E.D by being supported by Americans hence he said ‘ The only thing we have to fear it fears itself”.

OR
Was an attempt to recognize the capitalist system through registration and other measures taken by democratic party led by president Franklin D. Roosevelt. This combined a series of measures, solution and activities which all intended to rescue the economy of U.S.A from the impact of U.S.A.



Aims /Objectives of New Deal

1. To prevent economic hardship that had been brought by G.E.D to American people.

2.To create employment opportunities to Americans through creating different projects which could give employment to Americans e.g. it was said that 12 out of 15 had no jobs.

3. To increase and estimated demand of goods but also aimed to control period in order to avoid inflation.

4. To reduce and stop poverty which had spread throughout U.S.A because of the effect of G.E.D to Americans.

5. To provide relief to the victims of the economic hardship of the G.E.D e.g. providing shelter for homeless people, food for starving people.

6. Aimed to bring back confidence of American people like farmers, industrialist, and bankers etc who had lost their home because of the effects of G.E.D.

7. To end financial crisis due to the collapse of banks and due to bankrupt of the bank.

8. Aimed to stimulate economic activities e.g. Agriculture production, business activities, industrial period etc.

Measures Taken by Roosevelt in the New Deal / Programme

1. Federal emergence relief administration (FED).
This measure began to create jobs through construction of air parts, roads, school, play ground as a result it gave work to jobless, actors and agrarians.

2. Agricultural adjustment act of 12/05/1933.
This measure aimed at raising the prices of agricultural production by limiting over production; this was accompanied by funds by the tax collector and by the government to compensate the farmers in case of price fluctuation faced the farmers the farmers during the depression.

3. The national industrial recovery act (NIRA).
This was passed in 1935 in order to deal with the effects of depression in the new deal. NIRA aimed to enforce law of fair practice for business men and industrialist where it set minimum wage and maximum wage which workers were suppose to be paid but also NIRA sets primary goals to business companies in order to improve the level of quality of goods but also within NIRA workers rights were organized and bargain were recognized.

4. The public worker administration (PWA).
This measure aimed at initiating of public workers projects e.g. many public workers were buildings which were provided with money from the government in order to run its activities and this public workers project were supposed to pay low interest to the government e.g. There was the building of Tennessee valley authority (T.V.A) in order to control floods and provide electricity in rural areas so as to calm poverty.

5. The finance restricting /banking relief act.
This measure intended to provide loan for bankers to procedure with banking activities.

6. The labour standard act passed in 1938.
This was intended to provide employment to the people but also setting the minimum wage of US dollar cent 25 per hour and maximum working hours is 44 hours per week; but also there should be extra pay for a time exceeding evolving hours but also in this measure children below 16 years were abandon to work in industries rather they were insisted to go to school.

7. Social security fund of 1937.
This measure intended to provide insurance for aged, jobless, blindness, disabled as well as children in need.

8. The civilian conservative cooperation.
In this act a lot of program were initiated / launched by the government where by people in America were to be given works in projects like planting trees, building dams etc.


Improvement in Agriculture

Achievements of the New Deal

The New deal achieved a lot in reviving the U.S.A economy and make her economy stable as collaborated below:-

1. It curbed / achieved in curbing the spread of depression further in U.S.A. This led to revive the economic situation in America hence it accelerated U.S.A to start being stable economically.

2. Created new employment opportunities to Americans who had no employment due to great depression e.g. In 1937 more than US dollar 40 billion had been spend in projects which led to provide employment to American people.

3. Created major political changes in America whereby the democratic party become the majority party by replacing the republication party which was in power hence president Franklin D. Roosevelt come into power with his democratic party.

4. It succeeded in reorganizing agricultural and industrial sectors which had almost collapsed during G.E.D. This was because after the measure taken in the new deal agriculture and industries started to produce more & more and employ many America for stabilizing the American economy.

5. It succeeded in organizing labor in U.S.A whereby labor become an important force in national affairs e.g. There was the formation of labor union to fight for the rights of workers but also labor was needed in almost all sectors revived after the Great depression for economic stability in America.

6. It succeeded in reducing poverty to Americans by providing them with relief such as food, shelter, electricity, and provision of goods, education & health care.

7. It succeeded in reviving different economic sectors in U.S.A e.g. public welfare, banking sector, industrial sector, tourist sector and agricultural sector grow up very rapidly and start to operate it again which all these brought back confidence among the people in America such as bank depositors, farmers, industrialist etc.


Changes in U.S.A Affairs since 1945 / Effects of U.S.A after becoming Super Power

Soon after WWII U.S.A got prosperity / wealth which turned U.S.A as a strongest nation in all aspect of life in the world defending the capitalist nations.

1. US Economy grow more stable because U.S.A benefited a lot in the WWI and WWII e.g. No war was ever fought in American land, U.S.A joined in WWI and WWII very late and all the time U.S.A was a supplier of war equipment for fighting nation in Europe. This enabled U.S.A to get wealth and started to consolidate Monopoly capital which led the rise of larger Monopoly companies which were invested in U.S.A and other parts of the world.

2. U.S.A consolidated her industries; these enabled U.S.A to get more wealth / for development in America e.g. there were armament industries which produced air jobs, naval ships, military weapons, car manufacturing industries etc, all these enabled U.S.A to consolidate her own economy.

3. The rise of income among the working class.
This was due to increase of wages which resulted after the trade union struggles on the rights of workers but also the increase of income led to the rise of national market which also accelerated to ability of American people to consume the commodities production in the country hence U.S.A become stable economically.

4. There was improvement of infrastructure network.
This led U.S.A to start accessing both internal and external market, getting more labor of due to availability of labor mobility in USA but also the improvement of infrastructures accelerated the communication of people in USA.

5. U.S.A was able to extend the Marshall plan.
The Marshall plan led U.S.A to get more wealth from the debt paid from European nation but also with the Marshall plan U.S.A was able to persuade the Europeans to decolonize her colonies so as U.S.A could get areas for market, cheap labour, raw materials for USA and areas to invest.

6. U.S.A established military organization and military bases.
In other parts of the world in order to defend her capitalism or her imperialism with all interest of U.S.A e.g. There was formation of NATO, CENTO, ANZUS, OAS, SEATO, and military bases e.g. Mombasa Somalia in Africa, Pakistan and Kuwait

7. U.S.A started to defend and protect the spread of communism.
In Western Europe and other parts of the world that followed capitalism, hence U.S.A appointed as the policeman of the world to fight against communism from affecting capitalist world.

8. U.S.A abandoned her isolation policy and started to opt the involvement in Western European matter both politically, socially, military and much more economically because Western European countries were under capitalist system being supported by U.S.A.

9. The emergence of cold war politics.
Between the socialist nation under USSR and the capitalist nation under U.S.A until early 1990’s after the collapse of USSR as a leading socialist nation.




RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN JAPAN AND U.S.A AFTER WWII

Before the attack of the Pearl Harbor there was the conflict between Japan and U.S.A due to U.S.A support to China which was a traditional enemy of Japan, for this reason Japan declared war against U.S.A which increased tension /enmity due to different ideologies among the imperialist powers however Japan Military troops were supported by Muslim, Hitler and General Francisca Franco of Spain to challenge the ideas of democracy and security of some American closed friends.

Hence U.S.A interred in the WWII following the surprising attack of Japan on a large American Naval base at pear / harbor in Hawaii because Japan was interesting to get rubber, oil and other raw materials from the East Asia especially from Manchuria. This forced U.S.A directly to inter into the WWII against Japan hence it was due to the strong competition between Japanese and U.S.A over the reasons over Asia like rubber, oil metal, markets and the attack of Japan at Pearl Harbor which forced America to inter in the WWII against Japan.

After the WWII and the surrender of Japan, U.S.A and Japan entered on a good relationship which was resulted after the post dam conference of 1945 hence U.S.A occupied Japan and took over three main Island of Japan which were Hokkaido, Shikoku and Kyushu. This allowed U.S.A to create a democratic government in Japan under the U.S.A military commander Mac. Arthur.

Attack at the Pearl Harbor

How the Relationship between U.S.A and Japan Implemented

The relationship of Japan and U.S.A was implemented in all aspects of life economically, socially, military and politically as elaborated below:-

(i) Japan was forced to adopt new constitution.
This made the King who was the head of state and who had all the powers to be like a figure head or ceremonial leader of the new government / state.

(ii) Introduction of universal suffrage and observation of human rights.

(iii) Japan was not allowed to raise an army and Shinto culture which is a Japanese traditional region established by King based on military expansionism was abolished.

(iv) The education system of Japan was made similar to that of America.

(v) There was a large economic form which was under taken by American government to help Japan. This aimed to make Japan to be strong economically.

(vi) U.S.A offered aid to Japan in order to facilitate the construction of Japanese economy and consolidate Japanese capitalist which accelerated the rapid economy development in Japan.

(vii) U.S.A used the advantage of ruling Japan to check the spread of communism in fear east; in so doing U.S.A strengthen Japanese economy as well as a way of using Japan as a base for advancement of U.S.A imperialism in few East like in Taiwan, South Korea, and Vietnam.

The Effect of U.S.A – Japanese Relation

1. U.S.A made Japan as one of the leading industrial nation in the world. Through industries and technologies she extended in Japan is a world leading ship building, in the world steel production and is the world leading of produce of electronic goods like cameras, watches, mobile phones etc.

2. Japan was made as a base for U.S.A imperialism. This was intending to check the spread of communism in Asia e.g. U.S.A involved Naval base in Japan in 1950’s such as Korean war, this made U.S.A to invest much and put a lot of efforts in Japan in order to check the spread of communism in Eastern Europe but also to defend Japan from communist threat .

3. After the end of the U.S.A rule in Japan in 1970’s; the two nations have remained the big enemies in the modern capitalist technological manufacturing in the world market e.g. Japanese car against U.S.A car.

4. Japan received U.S.A aid to revive her affected economy.

5. There had many adoption of English vocabularies in Japanese language as well as the western business goods started to use the language of Japan as well as the Japanese goods started to use English vocabulary in order to be sold easier at home and at world market.

6. Nowadays Japan has remained as the close friend of U.S.A sharing the American culture and goods for the development of the two nations.

7. Japan was put under the U.S.A domination / rule until the end of U.S.A rule in Japan in 1970’s.


U.S. President Donald Trump (right) and Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe (left) meet in Washington, February 2017

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