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HISTORY NOTES FOR FORM FIVE
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Topic 1 - PRE COLONIAL AFRICAN SOCIETIES
Topic 2 - AFRICA AND EUROPE IN THE 15TH CENTURY
Topic 3 - THE PEOPLE OF AFRICAN ORIGIN IN THE NEW WORLD
Topic 4 - FROM COLONIALISM TO THE FIRST WORLD WAR (1880'S-1914)
Topic 5 - COLONIAL ECONOMY AND SOCIAL SERVICES AFTER THE SECOND WORLD WAR
Topic 6 - INFLUENCE OF EXTERNAL FORCES AND THE RISE OF NATIONALISM AND THE STRUGGLE FOR INDEPENDENCE
Topic 7 - POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN TANZANIA SINCE INDEPENDENCE
1. European colonial powers did not plan to industrialize or modernize Africa. Africans were used to solely produce raw materials, export them to Europe, and then re -export them Africa as final products, sold at high prices. Africans could not afford to pay for these products. There were several negatives of colonialism for the Africans like resource depletion, labor exploitation, unfair taxation, lack of industrialization, dependence on cash crop economy, prohibition of trade, the breaking up of traditional African society and values, lack of political development, and ethnic rivals inside countries.
2. Poor technological base of most of the present day African states, which has been responsible for their underdevelopment stems from their poor foundation of education laid by the colonialists. Colonial education essentially aimed at training clerks, interpreters, produce inspectors, artisans, etc., which would help them in the exploitation of the Africa’s rich resources. Colonial education did not aim at industrialization of African territories or at stimulating technological development within the African environment. Colonial education brought about distortion and disarticulation in African indigenous pattern of education which was rooted in African technology. Before fully embracing colonial education, Africans were good technologists, advancing at their own rates with the resources within their environment.
For example, Africans were good sculptors, carvers, cloth weavers, miners, blacksmiths, etc. They were able to provide and satisfy the technological need of the various African societies. The introduction of colonial education made Africans to abandon their indigenous technological skills and education in preference to one which mainly emphasizes reading and writing. This was the prelude or foundation for the present poor technological base of African states which has perpetuated their underdevelopment. As we know, education that is not deeply rooted in a people’s culture and environment cannot bring about any meaningful technological advancement. This has aptly been shown in the unsuccessful attempt at the so-called technological transfer, which is more of a myth than reality.
3. The economic structure of African society was changed by Europeans. Cash crops were introduced to meet industrial needs of European countries. Cocoa, coffee, tea, and cotton were the main cash crops produced on a large scale. Several minerals were mined extensively. The problem with this was cash crops were focused on instead of food for basic needs, leading to famine among many Africans. Europeans changed the economy from a model of producing foods for need to mainly the production of cash crops. All crops produced by Africans were exported and prices were set by the colonies. Africans were not allowed to grow these cash crops to benefit themselves. Trade was prohibited between Africans, so they were forced to export all cash crops produced and minerals mined.