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Tuesday, June 12, 2018

ENGLISH: FORM TWO: Topic 8 - READING FOR COMPREHENSION

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TOPIC 8: READING FOR COMPREHENSION

Reading and Obtaining General Information

Reading for comprehension involves reading information from different sources. It involves reading in details with specific aims and tasks passages and information carefully with the aim of knowing all things about the information’s in the text.

In this part you are reading with the aim of being able to answer comprehension questions. When you are answering comprehension questions, the first thing to do is read the questions carefully before you read the passage, after reading the questions, you have to read the whole passage while remembering the questions.

While reading you have to note all new vocabulary, the main idea of information and specific ideas. When you are reading consider; specific ideas which may lead you to summaries the passage, answer questions and know the title, a good example of specific ideas are, definitions, reasons or causes, importance, effects e.t.c . After doing all these, you go back to the questions and answer them.


Example 1  
Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:

ILO Convention No 138 refers to child labor as employment below the minimum of age 15 and it state that 215 million children under 18 work full time around the word. Children are denied the right to education when they are forced into the worst forms of labor, especially sexual exploitation, child trafficking, heavy manual work in mining and agricultural plantations. According to UNICEF in 2011, 90 of children involved in domestic labour are girls.

In Sub Saharan Africa, which include developing countries like Tanzania among every four children aged 5-17 compared to the countries like Latin America where 1 among every ten children are engaged with work.

UNICEF 2010 estimated 20.7% of children in Tanzania are involved in child labour which dropped compared to 2001 when national bureau of statistics estimated that 35.4% were child labourers. According to the Tanzania legal and human rights centre 2012 human rights report, child labour in Tanzania is facilitated by a number of reasons including; poverty, family separation and pastoral communities which moves from one place to another in search for water and pasture. This forces children to drop out from school and are subjected to enforced labour, often times out of necessity.

The constitution and laws of Tanzania state that “employing child under 14 years old is an offence and employing any person below 18 years in an environment that will endanger their life or affect the upbringing of the child is an offence.’

The employment and labour relations act of 2004 gives the power to resident magistrate or district courts to impose punishment of 1 year imprisonment or fines up to Sh5 million to any person found guilty under the act. Child labour is also prohibited under the law of the child act of 2009.

Exercise 
Write the title of the passage and summarise it in no more than 20 words.

Reading for comprehension


Example 2
Read the following passage carefully and then answer the questions which follow:

The number of children seen loitering in cities and towns increases day after day. Between 1960 and 1970, very few of these were seen in Tanzania. However, from 1970 to date, their number has drastically increased. There are many questions we should ask ourselves concerning street children. For example, why do we have them?Where do they come from?Do they have parents?How do they live in the street?

Some of the questions are not easy to answer. However, there are some reasons why we have street children. One of the reasons could be the death of parents or guardians. The course of death nowadays could be AIDS. Due to ignorance some relative refuse to live with such orphans for fear that they may infect them with the disease. Other relatives are reluctant to add children to their families and see them as a burden. There are also relatives who do not want responsibilities. The unfortunate children, therefore, end up in the streets.

There are many other reasons that make children run away from into the streets. Some parents are too strict or cruel. They punish their children severely for even the slightest or mistakes. In order to escape this torture and brutality, the abused children run away. Other parents are just irresponsible and do not fulfill their children’s needs and rights. Such parents may not be poor, so they do this through negligence. When children discover that their parents cannot meet their needs and deny them their rights they flee to the streets.

Separation or divorce due to drunkenness, harassment or other misunderstandings may be another reason for street children. The children do not get parental love and care and decide not to stay with either of their parents.

Inadequate knowledge on family planning could also contribute to having street children. As the family keeps on growing, parents fail to sustain and provide for their children.

Such children miss their basics necessities and decide to go to the streets to fend for themselves.

Lastly, there are stubborn children who, whatever their parents do to them mentally, physically and materially, are never satisfied. They desire to live like children of rich families. As they are not satisfied, they go to the street just to search for “better lives”. These children are just rebels.

There are many other reasons why some children find themselves living in streets. What the community should do to limit the number of street children is: First, to educate the parents on family planning. Second, parents should know that children have the right to be loved and taken care of, the right to education and to be listened to. Children also should know that they have to obey their parents and elders.




Questions

a) Choose the best answer:

1. Street children are__________.
a) Children born in the street
b) Homeless children
c) Orphans.
d) Children without parents.

2. Where are street children mostly found? In________.
a) Village
b) Homes
c) Big cities
d) Schools

3. The word “loitering” simply means ____________.
a) Walking fast in busy streets.
b) Walking about doing nothing.
c) Dancing in the street.
d) Playing in the streets.

4. Which of the following statement is true according to the passage?
a) Parents should not punish children
b) Street children suffer from AIDS
c) Street children are all orphan
d) Irresponsible parents neglect their children

5. A child whose parents died of AIDS __________.
a) Can become street child.
b) Must become a street child.
c) Also suffer from AIDS.
d) Does not need other people’s love.

6. Children whose parents died of AIDS_____________.
a) Their parents are not strict.
b) Their parents give them their rights.
c) Their parents do not have money.
d) They miss parental care and love.

7. All street children ____________.
a) Have been mistreated by their parents.
b) Have disobeyed their parents.
c) Are orphans.
d) Were forced into the streets by different problems.

8. Who is to blame for the condition of the street children ____________.
a) The AIDS disease.
b) The parents or guardian.
c) The children themselves.
d) All the three above.

9. One way of reducing street children suggested by the author is to____________.
a) Assist parents’ separation.
b) Encourage parental negligence.
c) Educate parents on family planning.
d) Punish the children.

10. Suggest a suitable title for the passage ____________.
a) Orphans.
b) Homeless children.
c) Children in cities.
d) Village children.

b) With reference to the passage you have read, answer the following questions:

1. Give one reason why relatives refuse to live with children who have lost their parents through AIDS.______________________

2. Mention two reasons why some children run away from home to live in the streets_____

3. What can the community do to help street children? Give one solution.____







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