INFLUENCE OF EXTERNAL FORCES AND THE RISE OF NATIONALISM AND THE STRUGGLE FOR INDEPENDENCE
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Nationalism can be defined as the desire for Africans to end all forms of foreign control and influence so as to be able too take charge of their political, social and economic affairs. Before 1960 most of Africa was still under colonial control. However, by 1970 most of Africa was independent of European colonialism.
African nationalism is however, a product of colonialism in Africa. It is traced from colonial imposition in 1880s with anti-colonial resistances such as the Mandika (1882-89), Nandi (1895-1905), Hehe (1891-98) and Majimaji (1905-07) resistances. African nationalism grew in intensity and complexity with the years after the formation of colonial states and intensification of colonial oppression.
African nationalism reached its intolerant height during the decade following the end of World War II as colonial exploitation intensified to intolerable state. It passed through three phases; the Proto nationalism phase, 1884-1919; the Cooperatives, Welfare, Workers and Independent Religious Movements phase, 1920-1945 and Mass Nationalism, 1945-1960s. Independence was achieved by three major forms; constitutional means, warfare and revolutionary means.
The revolution of China 1949 unfitness the rising of the plotetarial and peasant forming a government of socialist since socialism was against colonialism it supported decolonization process in different parts of the world.
Pan-Africanist Pioneers: Edward Wilmot Blyden, Henry Sylvester Williams and William Edward Burghardt Du Bois
In 1946 the British colonial government introduced what was called the Burns constitution. Although this constitution provided for an African majority in the legislative council, it had two main weaknesses.
|Ethiopian Emperor Selassie (C) and Ghana's first President Kwame Nkrumah (L) at the formation of the OAU in Addis Ababa, 1963|
|Angolan 1st President Agostinho Neto thanking Cuban President Fidel Castro for much support in achieving Angola Independence in 1975|
|Mozambique's first President Samora Machel. The victory of Frelimo over Portuguese colonialism in Mozambique|
|Pan-Africanists: Kwame Nkurumah (Ghana), Jomo Kenyatta (Kenya), Nnamdi Azikiwe (Nigeria) and Kamuzu Banda (Malawi)|