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I WILL MARRY WHEN I WANT (1986)
(By Ngugi wa Thiong’o and Ngugi wa Mirii)
Synopsis of the Play
is a Gikuyu play co-written by Ngũgĩ wa Mirii and Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o. First produced in Kenya in 1977, the story depicts a farmer who is tricked into risking his land due to social and religious pressures. The prominent themes reflect a commentary on the hypocrisy and corruption of religion and capitalism, and the politics explored in the play were controversial in post-colonial Kenya. The production of the play is widely believed to be the root of Mirii and Thiong’o’s arrests and detentions without charges that same year. The writers were released in 1978, along with other detainees, once Daniel Toroitich arap Moi succeeded tyrannical President Kenyatta after his death.
|Ngugi wa Thiong’o|
The play depicts the protest of peasants in Kenya after independence. It is the play that shows the plight (a difficulty and sad situation) of the peasant family like Kiguunda’s family. Kiguunda has only one and a half acre which he considers the basis of the family though the small piece of land is situated in the marginal area. The play dramatise high rate of exploitation as the foreigners use indigenous to exploit Kenyans as we see the multinational companies from abroad engineer people like Ahab Kioi wa Konoru to exploit fellow Africans. So the major attempt of this play is to dramatise high exploitation of workers and peasants by both the foreign capitalist and indigenous people who act as middlemen. The playwrights discuss the issues connected to neo-colonialism and its effects to the developing countries.
Thus this play is the criticism of the contemporary world where big companies from the developed countries in collaboration with the indigenous are exploiting the developing countries under the name of globalization so this play is generally an attack of neo-colonialism.
STRUCTURE OF THE PLAY
The play is made up by of three acts, where by act one is not divided into scenes, act two is divided into two scenes and act three has three scenes.
All these acts and scenes contain events as summarized here under:-
- At kingdom’s family, they are having a poor life. He has a square, mud walled white – ochred, one roomed house for the whole family. Gathon is using the floor as bed, where we see rags used as her bedding.
- Kiguunda and Wangeci are preparing for the visit (Kioi and his Wife Jezebel) Kiguunda mending the broken chain .In the process he cause the title dead fall on the floor He picked it and looked at it and proud of it but Wangeci never praised it as it is so small and the land itself is unproductive.
- The play wright show the concept of drunkenness in the country especial people who have been dismissed from job.
- We see this through the drunker who passes by Kiguundas house singing.
- He utters sarcastic words and starts to urinate such that Wangeci gets annoyed and chases him away.
- Another aspect in this act is Harambee for the churches and attempts the Christians to convert Wangeci.
- Kiguunda and Wangeci are against new religion and hate the Harambee which asks contributions for building churches from the poor.
- He says he doesn’t see the necessary of building church while it is used once a week. So Kiguunda chase away the group of singers.
- Conflict between Gathon and her mother, mother complains that Gathoni is busy doing her hair while she has a lot of domestic activities.
- Her mother tells her to help her but Gathon become furious
- She starts to complain of too much work and having not sent to school and the state of poverty where she uses the floor as her bed and the rages as her bedding
- She starts exchange bitter word with her mother and later her father shout at her in an intimidating manner
- The parents start discussing modern children that they have undergone moral decadence and they have no respect at all
- Kiguunda and Wangeci discuss the problem of Wages after running shortage of salt. Hence he don’t have money to buy it
- They send Gathoni to Gicaamba to big salt. Kiguunda says the price of different things have gone so high while Wages have not risen
- Kiguunda complaining that they take long time working in farms of the rich people like Ikuua Wanditika and Kioi but they are paid low wages.
- Kiguunda says Ikuua and Kioi are exploiters hence calling them bedbugs.
- In this act we see the relationship between John Muhuuni and Gathoni;
- Wangeci says that Gathoni is misbehaving because of the relationship between her and John Muhuuni who keeps on hooting on the road in the presence of the parents. Gathoni goes to meet her boyfriend on the road.
- Wangeci later guess that perhaps the visiting of Kioi and Jezebel is to discuss about the marriage of John Muhuuni and their daughter. This was not the case to Kiguunda as he never thought of that.
- Gicaamba and Njooki are introduced in the play. They discuss the relationship between John Muhuuni and Gathoni
- Njooki caution them to tell Gathoni to cut relationship between her and John Muhuuni giving the reason that rich marry to the rich and poor to the poor so there won’t be any marriage as Gathoni and John do not belong to one class.
- They also discuss about the Wages and the way they are exploited in the factories and forms and they blame their fellow Africans like Ikuua and Kioi who work for the interest of the whites in Europe and America.
- We see the arrival of the expected guest plus two other people who make four guests in total ie Kioi, Jazebel, Samwel Ndugire and Helen who are well dressed. They start preaching and convince Kiguunda and Wangeci to be christain and go to the church to have their wedding blessed.
- Kiguunda get annoyed and chases them away. Wangeci blame him that he has done it in a hurried manner. She says he should have waited till they finish the full purpose of shier visitation.
- At the end of this act, Gathon comes in with new clothes and new shoes.
- Kiguunda and Wangeci are unhappy because they never bought their daughter those things so they become furious.
- Gathoni tells them that she has been requested by John to accompany him to Mombasa for a week.
- Kiguunda was completely annoyed but Gathoni never care about that she left them and go with John
- Wangeci calms her husband telling him to stop being dejected as she still have her illusion that the instance of Kioi to go to the church would probably mean to pave the way to the marriage of their daughter and John
Kiguunda brief Gicaamba and Njooki about Kios family that they want Gathoni and John Mhuuni to marry that's why they want him and Wangeci to be Christian so that the Marriage can be accepted.
- Gicaamba and Njooki do no accept
- Gicaamba tells them that they must avoid promises as promise doesnot mean delivery.Njooki stress by saying rich families never marry from poor families,Njooki still says that true love between the two does not base on wealth or property.
- Gicaamba support her and shows his dejection against hypocrisy as people now a days just go church for fashion.
- Gicaamba shows hypocrisy and he says not only in marriage but also in churches. As he says when the rich dies they pray for him but when the poor man die they don’t care about him/her and they don’t even pray for the burial ceremonies. That’s why Gicaamba add a proverb that “A rich man’s fart does not stick” means that if someone is rich or a leader people do not consider his/her weakness.
- Gicaamba is against Christian marriage claiming that even the tradition wedding has blessings.
- Gicaamba says the new religion brought by the whites intend to soften the Africans so as to get an easy way to penetrate and exhaust Africans by establishing what they want citing the way African religious leaders to the detention. Camps like Manyani, Mageta, Hola etc to facilitate the process of weakening the freedom fighter.
- Trying to persuade people to betray others by their secret but some refused like Wanjeri.
- Finally after a long discussion he discourage the blessing of marriage between Kiguunda and Wangeci in church and allowing the marriage between Gathoni and Wangeci to take place.
- Wangeci seem to be enoyed as she want her marriage to be blessed in church so as to facilitate the marriage between her daughter John Muhuuni as she has the illusion that her daughter will have better life.
- As a result she convice her husband to go to Kioi’s place to tell them that they accept his plan.Kiguundi accept and go to see Kioi the other day.
- At Kioi home, where we see the difference between Kioi's home & that of Kiguunda Kio’s home is well furnished TV, sofa set, plastic flowers on the table, presence of electric light, radiogram etc. On the wall words written CHRIST IS THE HEAD OF THIS HOUSE, THE UNSEEN GUEST AT EVERY MEAL, THE SILENT LISTENER TO EVERY CONVERSATION.
This shows that they are Christians. In the house there are Jezebel, Kioi, Ndugire, Hellen, Ikuua and a Waiter.
- Ikuua want to leave the place but before be leaves. They discuss about the insecticide factory that their friends from abroad want to build. They say the factory should not build at the area where important people live but to the poor people like Kiguunda.
- Ikuua say the land to build factory should be bought from poor people as they sell their land because of laziness.
- He says once the land is bought Kioi should not write his name rather he should write either of his wife or his son John Muhuuni.
- These people seofem to use their wealth in marrying many wives. For instance Ikuua wa Nditika is a polygamist as he has two wives and he has the intention of having the third one.
- After the departure Ikuua, Kioi tells Ndugire that he has sent his son to Malindi to check the plot he has bought near watamu bay where he wants to erect a hotel bise of tourism the says the hotels are very profitable as there are many tourists from different countries like America, France and German.
- Kioi blaming the workers that they usually demand increases salaries giving reason of paying school fees or having sick people in hospitals.
- We see in this scene the rich are criticising the churches of the poor just because they are run by illiterate people.
- The arrival of Kiguunda and Wangeci at Kioi’s place
- Wangeci is humiliated by the waiter who draws away a tray as she tries to pick up a cup of tea. This shows that at Kioi’s family food is prepared by considering the number of people (This is western culture)
- Also Kiguunda and Wangeci are given water from the drum while some of it is in the huge jar on the table. This is another humiliation.
- Kiguunda express what brought them there, he says they are read their marriage to be blessed in the church, Kioi's are so impressed to hear that.
- Kiguunda introduces the issue of economic crises hence he can not afford the expenses Kioi advises him to take the loan promising him to secure the loan. Kiguunda agrees with the idea hence promises to bring the title – dead next day.
- New outlook at Kiguunda’s place. New plates caps, basins, new dining table with chairs, suitcase etc. On the wall we see words like that of Kioi’s home
- Kiguunda and Wangeci are very happy with the changes and they are determined to go to the church for the blessings of their marriage
- We see Wangeci and Kiguunda are rehearsing for the wedding ceremony, Singing Christian songs.
- During their rehearsal Gathoni arrives weaping claiming that she has jilted by John Muhuuni after impregnated her.
- She tells her parents that she has conceived because John tells her that she cannot marry a girl before being pregnant as he afraid to marry a barren.
- Kiguunda tells Gathoni that, it is what she wanted because she does not consider his advice.
- Wangeci suggests that they should go to see Kioi for the matter and advise him to let children marry first before blessing their marriage.
- At Kioi’s place, where we see Ikuua and Kioi are alone in the room busy counting money.
- They also discuss the establishment of the factory. Ikuua suggests that they should buy the land to the poor people and if Kiguunda will accept that it will be good.
- Kioi shows nepotism as he says/ suggests that John Muhuuni should be the director of the factory
- As he says that their sons should practice responsibility “charity begins at home” Kioi’s said.
- After the departure of Ikuua, Kiguunda and Wangeci arrive at Kioi’s place.
- They tell Ahab Kioi wa Kinoru to postpone their marriage blessing instead they should let children (Gathon and John)to marry first as John has impregnated Gathoni.
- Kioi become angry and reject the idea and he says that his son cannot do that as he has been brought up in a Christian way.
- Kioi chases away Kiguunda clamming that he is telling him nonsense. Kiguunda threaten Kioi that he will take the matter before the law but Kioi says it will not help
- Kiguunda take out his sword threaten to kill Kioi if he cannot sign the agreement. Kioi saved by his wife who comes with the gun and orders Kiguunda to drop his sword Kiguunda dropped his sword but when he wants to take it Jazebel fires the bullet in air where Kiguunda fall down.
- It is in this point where we see that Gathoni did not marry John and it is in this point we prove what Njooki was saying that rich people never marry from poor and poor people never marry from the rich.
- It is in this point we see the concept of disillusion of Kiguunda and Wangeci as their illusion did not come true.
- At Kiguunda place. After two weeks Kiguunda is away and his home is like as it was the beginning of the play as all the new things he bought were not there expect the picture of Nebuchadnezzar and the words which was written on the wall.
- Wangeci is dejected and Njook is near her trying to comfort her. Gicaamba is shaking his head showing disbelief of what has happened.
In this scene we see how women and girl are being treated.
- Gathoni has been chased away from home by her father something which makes Wangeci uncomfortable. As she says that her daught has gone to be a barmaid which she associate it with being prostitute. Gicaamba advises her not to call a children prostitute as this negative repercussion has been caused by the parents who neglect woman in giving them education. He says women have been neglected even before colonialism by tradition and customs
- Gicaamba complain that people have completely forgotten the rule played by women from family level to the national level.
- He says women in Kenya fought for independence but many of them died in the forest still they are neglected.
- Njooki says being a housemaid is not a good job hence he consider Gathoni that she is jobless. She also says housemaid is being used by their bosses as their wife when their real wife is away.
- Kiguunda was dismissed from the job after exchanging bad words with Kioi. His and has been sold by the bank to Kioi, Ikuua and whites as he fail to pay back the loan because he engage himself into drinking too much. He sold his furnishes but he never paid back the loan.
- Kiguunda conflict with his wife as the wife is against the habit of drinking. Wangeci attack Kiguunda because of his habit as a result Kiguunda fight with his wife and they are separated by Gicaamba and Njooki.
- Gicaamba advises them to stop fighting as fighting cannot eliminate their problem (this shows that Gicaamba is a wise man) . Instead they should sit and think together the way they can use to solve their problems and think critically who are their real enemies and how to fight against these enemies like exploitation, Poverty, oppression etc.
- Gicaamba insist unity as the only way they can use to eliminate poverty.
He also discourages the habit of drinks so much as they can not solve their problem in that way.
The title I WILL MARRY WHEN I WANT has been used symbolically to represent the way people especially girls need freedom in different perspectives of life.
For instance the issue of Gathoni's marriage where by the mother force her to get a husband but Gathoni tells her that she will marry when she wants.
I shall marry when I want
Nobody will force me into it” Page 16
- It also symbolize too much freedom that girls want to have which result into negative repercussion.
- It also shows the way people are traditional due to ignorance hence they want things to happen as they want.
This refers to the class of exploiters like Koi IKua and the foreigners who use the poor people while paying them very low wages.
Gun & Sword
This symbolizes the struggle between the superior against inferior are the rich Vs the poor. The sword shows the weakness of the poor while the gun shows the strength of the rich.
- It shows the justification of love between the two
- It also shows the satisfaction and blessings given by the society to the couples
In the play we see the concept of second marriage between Kiguunda & Wangeci at first they refused.This shows that people have freedom in making decision.
The acceptance of the second wedding shows the weakness of the tradition weddings that they are not blessed and traditional customs and norms are not accepted
This symbolizes the acceptance of Neo-colonialism in African societies.
This symbolize unit as it is used to call the oppressed,exploited,humiliated etc so as to unit and struggle against evils.Page 115
“….. your face shone like the clear moon at night
Your eyes like the stars in heaven
Your breasts were full and pointed like the tip of the sharpest thorn ……………..” pg 22
“……….. when I see her I am unable to walk ……….” Pg23
Those are used to emphasize the idea or concept
As Gicaamba says, “……. Poverty is like poison in a body “pg 42. Also Wangeci says wedding cake which is as white as a snow or as white as a wedding dress pg 96
“We the workers are like that monkey” pg 33
“……….The owners of these companies are real scorpions” pg 33. In this metaphor Gicaamba show how the owners of the Company save or saving for their interest and not to help the poor
“…………... Religion is the alcohol of the soul!”
“………….. Religion is the poison of the mind!”pg 61
“………….. that silenced the entire forest making even the tree to listen ………..” pg 23 in real sense trees can not listen
Wangeci tells Gicaamba that, Kiguunda had become married to chibuku Liquor! Pg 106
This is the use of words which have no good teste or without use of empharnism as Kiguunda tells her daughter:-
“A man brags about his penis however small" pg 51
The playwright use this to show uneducated people are poor in selecting words during communication
To use a word to reduce harshness of a particular word.
Wangeci tells Kiguunda:-
“………. Gathoni being a child,
Does she realize that man have prickly needles! pg 20-21
Here the playwright uses Euphemism i.e. prickly needles to avoid mentioning the genital part
(viii) Code switching or barbarism
I.e. shifting from one language to another. The aim of this is to emphasize the point. As Kiggunda tells Gathoni
“………….. If ever I see or hear that again ………!
Utakiona cha Mtema Kuni
“………. To enable us to educate boys and girls?
Na uchunge mdomo wako" pg 17
These are given intentionally to worn or educate someone
- “ A man brags his own penis however tiny” pg 4
Means that a person should proud his own property however small
- "Many hands make work high" pg 12
This proverb calls for unit hence people should unity to fight against Malpractices
- “An aging hero has no admires” pg 13
Wangeci tells Kiguunda. This means that there is a tendence of neglecting people (hero) who fought for something. For instance those who fought for independence
- “Utakiona cha Mtema Kuni” pg 17
This is a Swahili proverb given to worn or threaten someone
This was uttered by Kiguunda to intimidate his daughters
- “The given does not know when the granary is empty” pg 18
Kiguunda says this to his wife to emphasize the way he is financially.
He says he has given all the money to her hence he doesn't have more money
- “ A flower is robbed of the colours by the fruit it bears!” pg 29
Wangeci tells Kiguunda. As Kiguunda seem to show the dissatisfaction of the fellow Africans as there is nothing new since they have attain independence. This means that it is your son, relative or fellow people who can help you and not the distance people.
- “If you want to rob a monkey of a baby it is holding you must first through it a handful of peanuts” pg 33
- “ A parent is never nauseated by the mucus from his child’s nose” pg 52
“A she goat suckles its young however deformed
- “Promises do not mean delivery”
Clouds may be in the sky but it does not mean it will rain pg 53
Gicaamba tells Kiguunda & Wangeci
- “Charity begins at home” pg 100
(x) Songs and dances
This play has many songs where by the playwright use various songs for mobilizing people to fight against neo- colonialism. As we see the song in page 4,5,7,8,11,13,22,28,38-39,41-42,46-47,49,57,61,etc
Also these songs are used by the playwright for entertainment like on page 11-13
This is the skill of someone being able to copy the voice or movement of others. In this play we see this as the way of expressing negative attitude towards something or the way of showing dejection
For instance Kiguunda shows his anger by mimicking the group of singers in pg 10
"The devil must be crushed,
For darkness is falling......"
For instance Kiguunda shows his anger by mimicking the group of singers in pg 10
"The devil must be crushed,
For darkness is falling......"
Some of the character has been used in a fun way but intend to give a lesson to the society. For instance in pg. 4 where the drunker sing that he will marry when he wants when all padres are alive. This makes people laugh.Here the playwright want to show the weakness of the poor people that despite of being poor they drink too much instead of working hard
- Also the drinkers is funny as he blames Kiguunda not as Kiguunda does not want to go with him to drink
- Also at the end we see Kiguunda has indulged into the drinking business after selling his properties that he bought from the loan he took from the bank instead of paying back the loan. This lead to auction of his piece of land
· The exploited character
· Bad tempered and cruel to his family
· He is Gathoni's father and wangeci's husband
· He is a farm labourer who receives low wages
· A drunkard
· A man of contradictions
· He is illiterate and not wise
· He is a funny character who despises women despite his weaknesses he have.
· He is a factory worker who works for long time and he is paid low wages.
· He is kiguunda’s neighbour and Njooki’s husband
· He is a wise man
· He is a traditionalist hence against new religion
· He is a patriotist and mobilizer as he calls for the people to unit as it is the only weapon for success
· He is constructive man as he always give positive idea.
· She is Kiguunda’s wife
· A wise woman than her husband
· She force her daughter to get married
· She is also illiterate
· She hates the tendency of drinking so much
· She represents all women experience humiliation from their husband by being bitten and isolated by the system
· She is not educated but eager to be educated
· Unmarried girl
· She does not want to be force into marriage hence she wants freedom in her own affair.
· She is the lover of Muhumi who impregnates her
· She was gilted by John Muhumi as she ended being chased away by her father
· She later becomes a barmaid
· She suffers humiliation of being called a whore or prostitute.
· She represents young generation who want changes after being frustrated with life.
· She is Gicaamba’s wife
· She is aware of the existence of classes hence she believes that it is very difficult for the rich to Marry from the poor people
· She also represents women who are oppressed
· She is a wise woman
vi. Ahab Kioi wa Kanoru
· He is a wealth person
· He is John’s father and Jezebel husband
· He is Ikuua’s business partner
· An exploiter
· He is a black capitalist as he works for the interest of the white(Hypocrite)
vii. Ikuua wa (Nditika)
· He is Kioi’s business partner
· He also represent the class of black capitalist who exploit fellow Africans
· He is a polygamist
· He is saved and encourages Kigunda and Wangeci to be saved
· He also represent the class of exploiter who collaborate with the foreigners to exploit fellow Africans
· Himself plus Kioi and Ikuua use bible as an instrument to soften fellow Africans so that they can do their evils. Without any protest.
· He is up becoming rich.
People like Kigunda and Gicaamba are selling labour power in the plantations of few people like Kioi,Ikuua and the whites and they are paid low wages. This is through the use indigenous like Ikuua and Kioi who act as the middlemen, Landlords and church men. These exploiters link the multinational companies and the Africans
- Gicaamba provide his man power in the factory he don’t even have time to rest but he is paid very little wages.
- Also Kiguunda works in Kioi’s farm but also he is paid low wages.
- These people also use church to exploit people as they demand Kiguunda and Wangeci to have their marriage being blessed as we see that Christian marriage needs a lot of money that’s why Kiguunda takes the loan from the bank to facilitate the ceremony.
- Also poor people are exploited as they are demanded to contribute something for the buildingof church, despite the fact that they are poor.
- Generally we find that in this play churches are used to clear the way for the domination of Neo- Colonialism.
ii) Land Alienation
- People like Kiguunda and Gicaamba are alienated from their fertile land. The minority like Kioi and Ikuua own large piece of land and the foreign companies are the only people who own Large and fertile land.
- The land has been taken from colonial error and even after independence the land has not yet given back to the owner
- Poor people are marginalized and are given piece of land to the areas which are not fertile. As we read from the Kiguunda is having one and a half acre for the whole family.
- Also we see in the play that rich people work hard to take even the small land that poor people have. The foreigners wants to establish a project but they want to get a small piece of land from Kiguunda i.e one and half acre.
· People like Gicaamba are aware with the existence of exploitation that’s why Gicaamba complains that they work for long duration but they are paid low wages. He says they are paid the amount that cannot even sustain their essential needs.
· Gathoni also is aware that education is very important that’s why she is complaining to her mother for not having sent her to school. Also Gathoni is aware that she has the freedom of selecting her partner, so she knows her right of making decision.
· Also Wangeci is aware on the impact of drinking excessively. That why she tells kingdom to leave that habit, as she knows that they won’t get away (get rid) from the pity of poverty. She knows that many people who used to drink too much they always end up with nothing. This is due to the fact that excessively drinking lead to irresponsibility.
· Not only that but also , Gicaamba is aware on the danger of relying on promises that’s why he advise Kiguunda and Wangeci not to rely on promises as promises does not mean delivery . he tells Kiguunda and his wife that Gathoni and John may not marry because of their class differences .
· Gicaamba is aware on the best way of solving the existing problem. That’s why he says that they need to come together and think deeply so as to identify their real enemy so that they can select the best way to fight against him/her. So Gicaamba calls for unity and patriotism. Hence he uses a song to mobilize his fellow Africans.
· Conflict between Gathoni and her parents. This is when Gathoni complain about their poor living condition. She complains that she uses rags and the floor as her bed. Also she complain of not being taken to school like her brother instead she is left at home for domestic activities and for picking tea leaves so that she can get money.
· Another conflict is Gathoni Vs her father. This is when Gathoni is back from Mombasa as she tell her parents that she is pregnant. Kiguunda become furious as he claims that Gathoni never listened to his advice.
· Conflict between Gathoni Vs John Muhuuni. This is when John cheats Gathoni to conceive so that he can merry her claiming that he is afraiding of marrying a barren woman. Gathoni accept that but after being pregnant and tries to tell John, he refuses chase Gathoni away and accompany her with insult as he calls her a prostitute
· Conflict between traditionalist Vs Christians. At the beginning we see Kinguunda , Wangeci, Gicaamba and Njooki are against Christianity as Christianity is connected to the whites and they believed that if they accept Christianity is like to accept neo – colonialism. That why Kiguunda chases the group of singers away from his home. He says he doesn't see the necessity of contributing for harambee to build the church while it is used only once a week.
· Conflict between Kioi’s family and Kiguunda’s family, The first conflict is when Kioi and Ndungire family went to Kiguunda to preach him the word of God and convince her to be Christian. In this case Kiguunda seen to have no interest hence he chases them away.
· The second conflict in this is when John Muhuuni impregnated Gathoni hence Kiguunda and his wife decide to go to Kioi’s place to tell him about their idea to let the children marry first this idea has completely denied by Kioi. This cause Kiguunda to be exasperated hence he decides to pull out his sword to threaten kioi so that he can accept the idea.
Intra- Personal Conflict:
- About the poor living condition
- Of not being taken to school
- After being jilted.
- About obstinate (stubborn) of her daughter
- Also after her daughter being jilted
- About excessive drinking behavior of her husband
- Unhappy with low wages which makes they live in poor living condition and obstinacy of her daughter.
- Also unhappy with the system who seem to favor rich people even if they are guilty. That why Kiguunda uses his sword
- Gathoni has the illusion that once she get a husband she will have better life but until the end we find that nothing has come as she expects.
- Also Wangeci has illusion that the relationship between Gathoni and John Muhuuni will lead to their marriage. She even believes that the visiting of kioi is to talk about the marriage of their children but we see there is nothing like that. She also connect the idea of Christianity as the paving way towards the marriage of their children that means if they accept Christianity it will pave the way of marriage of the two.
- Another illusion that Wangeci has is when she believes that Kioi will agree with the idea that they should let the children marry first as John has impregnated Gathoni
- In the play we see that girls are not given chance to education, they are left at home to do domestic activities and to work in forms e.g Gathoni. Girls are not taken to school because of culture influence and poverty of the family. In the play we see that girls are not given equal chances as boys in education. Women are considered as people who are not important in the society. This is gender imbalance in the society.
- In the play we see that education is so important as majority who are illiterate fail to opt for the best way of solving problems in different life perspectives eg Kiguunda
vii) Neo – Colonialism
- Not only Germans, Japanese or Americans who buy large area of Kenyan land for ereacting their factories and dominating major means of production but also we see black imperialist enriching themselves under the umbrella of neo- colonialism for instance Kioi who plan to create tourists hotel in Mombasa but he does not want to be recognized hence he uses the name of his son.
viii) Classes (social stratification)
Ie the classes of poor represented by Kiguunda and Gicaam Vs that classes of rich represented by Kioi and Ikuua who are in antagonism. This is because the rich use the poor to enrich themselves. Other themes include
xi) Position of women
xii) Love affairs and