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Sunday, December 15, 2019



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What is Communication?

- Communication is the exchange of ideas, information, etc between two or more people. It is also the process of transferring information, ideas, emotions, skills, etc, by means of symbols, works, pictures, figures, and graphs

- Communication is the activity of conveying information through the exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech, visuals, signals, writing or behaviour.

- Communication is the process of sending and receiving messages through verbal or nonverbal means, including speech, or oral communication; writing and graphical representations (such as infographics, maps, and charts); and signs, signals, and behavior. More simply, communication is said to be "the creation and exchange of meaning." 

From the above definitions communication is characterized by the following;

a) Communication is the process not an event; it is something that takes the form of continuity.

b) Communication is the two way process. It involves exchange of position or a role between a sender and receiver.

c) Communication become complete where there is a feedback (Information from a receiver to a sender).

d) Communication involves exchange of information (intangible things) and not goods. Sending of tangible things called transport/transportation and not communication.

e) Communication requires medium (language) and channels.

f) Communication is not rarely sending but also understanding between parts is the communication process.

Tools or means of communication and categories into
a) Verbal tools (language)
b) Non verbal tools e.g. Body language, sign, signals e.g. Traffic light, colours etc. Therefore the major tools communication is languages.

Making Communication with a Non Verbal Child Diagnosed with Autism


The term model is used to refer to a diagram or pictorial representation of a certain idea, fact or process.Therefore communication model is a diagramic or pictorial representation of a communication process more specifically communication is a representation of a verbal linguistic communication process.

Communication model

-Speaker  or                  -spoken or         -Television           -Listener or

- Writer                           - Written            - Radio                  - Reader

- Dialogue etc.

From the above model a message originate from a person who is called encoder or sender, then the sender selects a language e.g. (English and Swahili) and it’s from spoken or written. Then a sender selects channels or means methods for message transition. Finally the message reaches the receiver who decodes (interprets the message into understandable idea or thought, finally the receiver again select a medium and channels and sends a feedback to original speaker making a communication process.

Guide Questions
With the aid of communication model explain how communication takes place in human language.


Communication breakdown or failure is a situation or circumstance intended message timely and effectively. It entails the following situation or circumstances;

i. Failure of a message to reach the intended/targeted destination Receiver.
ii. A message is misunderstanding by receiver.                   

iii. A message arrives to the right receiver but not timely (arrives late) and therefore it become useless.                   

iv. Message passed through a wrong medium or channels.                 
v. Sender sends a wrong message e.g. Rumors.


There are several negative effect of communication breakdown some of them include;

- Conflict fight /war/misunderstand.
- Hatred/hostility and anger against one to another.

- Lack of trust and existence of suspicion.
- Destabilizing sociology-economic activities.

- In a learning process, teachers and students fail to understand each other. Hence failure in academy, It is also the source of strikes and boycott in schools and colleges etc.

Communication Breakdown


Effective communication is a cure to communication failure/breakdown were quite certain special skills so that we avoid the above dangerous or risks. These skills are referred to as communication skills. Communication skills are fundamental to effective communication.

Definition of effective communication
Effective communication can be defined as;
a) A careful and timely sending/transferring of right information and total understanding between parts.
b) Is the process of sending right information through right media and channels to the right receiver at the right time.


The factors that influences effective communication is the same (if received that can lead to communication breakdown

These factors are categorized into
     a) Linguistic factors
     b) Psychological factors
     c) Environment factors
     d) Social or cultural factors

These are language related factors. They include
i) Proper pronunciation.
ii) Use of language according to the level of the audience.
iii) Use of right/ appropriate register or style depending on the field of study or area of  specialization e.g.: science, law, literature.
iv) Use of appropriate dialect common to the audience.
v) Being clear and use of common language avoid using bombastic words and unnecessary vocabularies.

These are factors associated with attitude interest, perceptions and only other feelings of the sender or receiver of message. They include the following;

i) Avoid being judgment or biased. We should not judge people’s personality. Status or history but the message they give us. That is we should not judge a book by its cover but by its contents.

ii) We are advised to cultivate interest when we intend to communicate (to say write, read or listen) this promotes effective communication.

iii) Psychological preparation is important when we want to communicate we have to come down from anger or emotions otherwise we may fail to communicate effectively.    

NB: Tensions frustrations, anger, hatred emotions etc do affect our communication and therefore causing communication breakdown.

These are factors related to beliefs, traditions, ideology, customs and norms. During communication one has to be sensitive or aware of these issues so as avoid offending others or create hostilities we need to be carefully and respect other people beliefs, ideologies, traditions customs and norms for active communication.

These are factors related to climate conditions and other environmental condition. They include
i) Noise
ii) Rainfall
iii) Wind
iv) Temperature (heat or coldness)
v) Psychological interruptions interference e.g. speech interfere, passing of people, vehicles or animals.
vi) Smell
vii) Dust and other climatic extremes
viii) Timing of information is also key to effective communication of the above are not carefully analyses e.g. we want to communicate, we may fact communicate effectively.

Advantage of effective communication
Effective communication has the following advantage
i) It promote unity, cooperation and solidarity in a society
ii) Effective communication promotes peace, security and order of disputes or conflict are discussed amicably and compromise is reached peaceful.
iii) It promotes social and economic development
iv) It facilitates understanding e.g. in education or learning process
v) Serves time
vi)Serves resources(financial capital)

1 comment:

  1. You better add the factors hindering effective communication