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Sunday, July 29, 2018

COMPUTER: FORM TWO: Topic 4 - THE INTERNET

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TOPIC 4: THE INTERNET

The Internet
Describe the Internet
Internet is a wide world connection of computer which enables sharing of resource like files and folders, picture and music, teaching materials like notes / tutorials and computers.
This is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide. Communication between networks is called inter networking. Therefore internet comes from the word inter networking meaning a connection of data communication. The communication in which the end instruments are computers. The internet is a worldwide public networks that interconnect thousands of smaller networks to form one large “web” of communication.
Many private networks, some with thousands of users of their own connect to the internet by using the services of internet services providers (ISPs )
In simple words internet is a huge number of computers that are connected to each other throughout the world. These computers are situated in many different countries and are connected through telephone lines, cables in the ground and even satellite in spaces.
The Historical Development of Internet
Explain the Historical Development of Internet
Internet involved from US Department of defense project called ARPANET (Advanced Research Project Agency Network) in 1969. The main reason was to exchange information between researchers in this project. Browses and Word Wide Web (WWW) were introduced in early 1990’s.
Search Engine
Describe Search Engine
A search engine is a web site that collects and organizes content from all over the internet
Search engines are programs that search documents for specified keywords and returns a list of the documents where the keywords were found
This is a program that searches for and identifies items in a database that correspond to keywords or characters specified by the user, used especially for finding particular sites on the World Wide Web
The List of Search Engine
List Search Engine
Example of search engines are:
  • Google
  • Bing
  • Yahoo
  • Ask.com
  • AOL.com
  • Baidu
TYPES OF SEARCH ENGINE
  • INDIVIDUAL
  • META
Web search engine
  • A web search engine is a software system that is designed to search for information on the World Wide Web. The search results are generally presented in a line of results often referred to as search engine results pages (SERPs). The information may be a mix of web pages, images, and other types of files. Some search engines also mine data available in databases or open directories. Unlike web directories, which are maintained only by human editors, search engines also maintain real-time information by running an algorithm on a web crawler.

The Electronic Mail
Explain Electronic Mail
This is a method of exchanging messages between people using electronic devices. Or Electronic mail (email) is a digital mechanism for exchanging messages through Internet or intranet communication platforms
They comprise of:
  • User ID
  • The Symbol @
  • Domain name
The domain:
  • Its located after @
  • Tells the location and types of address
  • Provides information about where about the message should be delivered
Root Domain
Describes the type of location; currently there six root domain
  1. com: commerce organization
  2. edu: education / research organization
  3. go: government organization
  4. mil: military organization
  5. net: gateway host network
  6. Org: nonprofit or miscellaneous organization
Some domain name will also include the country name e.g. UK: England or tz: TANZANIA Example of e-mail address are:
  • abdulzabibu@gmail.com
  • User ID: abdulzabibu
  • Domain name: gmail.com
  • Domain (location): gmail
Advantages of e-mail
  • it’s free! Once you’re online, there is no further expense.
  • Easy to reference Sent and received messages and attachments can be stored safely, logically and reliably. It's a lot easier to organize emails than paper.
  • Easy to use Once you’re set up, sending and receiving messages is simple. That goes for a host of other email functions. Data storage and contacts can be accessed quickly and easily.
  • Easy to prioritize Incoming messages have subject lines that mean you can delete without opening. How much time does that save compared to ‘snail mail?
  • Speed Message to send, Done, under a second! Email is as fast a form of written communication as any.
  • Global Web based email means you can access your messages anywhere online. Going overseas? Before you go, mail yourself a copy of your passport number, travel insurance details or your accommodation details.
  • Good for the planet Actually the advantages and disadvantages of email are clear here. Computers themselves aren’t 'green', but email offsets some of the damage by reducing the environmental cost of contact.
  • Info at your finger tips Storing data online means less large, space taking file cabinets, folders and shelves. You can access information far quicker if you learn how to use email this way.
  • Leverage Send the same message to any number of people. Adaptations are simple, too. If you have a product or service to sell, email is an effective medium to get your message out.
  • Send reminders to yourself Email yourself messages from work to home or vice versa. Does the idea of two or more accounts seem complicated? It's not if you know how to manage multiple accounts.
Disadvantages of e-mail
  • Emails may carry viruses. These are small programs that harm your computer system. They can read out your email address book and send themselves to a number of people around the world.
  • Many people send unwanted emails to others. These are called spam mails. It takes a lot of time to filter out the unwanted emails from those that are really important.
  • Emails cannot really be used for official business documents. They may be lost and you can not sign them.
  • Your mailbox may get flooded with emails after a certain time so you have to empty it from time to time.
The Uses of Electronic Mail
Outline the Uses of Electronic Mail
Email is like sending a letter; the only difference is instead of using pen and paper, you use keyboard to type a message on computer.
Benefits of Email
  • It is more personal and direct medium for communication.
  • Messages are delivered within seconds around the world.
  • It allows to save and keep a record of your communication.
  • Easy to send with no time boundation.
  • Good example of One-To-Many communication.
  • You may attach files, documents, images, and other media to an email.
  • You can access your email from anywhere with Internet connection kept on.
  • Activate your filters and receive only genuine mails.

The Electronic Learning
Explain Electronic Learning
E-learning is the learning conducted via electronic media, typically on the Internet
Or E-learning is electronic learning, and typically this means using a computer to deliver part, or all of a course whether it's in a school, part of your mandatory business training or a full distance learning course.
Or E-Learning is learning utilizing electronic technologies to access educational curriculum outside of a traditional classroom.
The Advantages of Electronic leaning
List Advantages of Electronic Leaning
Advantages Of E-Learning
  • You are able to link the various resources in several varying formats.
  • It is a very efficient way of delivering courses online.
  • Due to its convenience and flexibility, the resources are available from anywhere and at any time.
  • Everyone, who are part time students or are working full time, can take advantage of web-based learning.
  • Web-based learning promotes active and independent learning.
  • As you have access to the net 24x7, you can train yourself anytime and from anywhere also.
  • It is a very convenient and flexible option; above all, you don't have to depend on anyone for anything.
  • Not only can you train yourself on a day to day basis, but also on weekends or whenever you have the free time to. There is no hard and fast rule.
  • Through discussion boards and chats, you are able to interact with everyone online and also clear your doubts if any.
  • The video instructions that are provided for audio and video learning can be rewound and seen and heard again and again if you do not happen to understand the topic first time around.
Disadvantages Of E-Learning
Well, there are not many disadvantages of e-Learning, the main one being that you get knowledge only on a theoretical basis and when it comes to putting to use whatever you have learnt, it may be a little different. The face-to-face learning experience is missing, which may matter to some of you.
  • Most of the online assessments are limited to questions that are only objective in nature.
  • There is also the problem of the extent of security of online learning programs.
  • The authenticity of a particular student's work is also a problem as online just about anyone can do a project rather than the actual student itself.
  • The assessments that are computer marked generally have a tendency of being only knowledge-based and not necessarily practicality-based.

The Electronic Commerce
Explain Electronic Commerce
This is commercial transactions conducted electronically on the Internet. Or This is a transaction of buying or selling online Or This is a term for any type of business, or commercial transaction that involves the transfer of information across the Internet.
It covers a range of different types of businesses, from consumer based retail sites, through auction or music sites, to business exchanges trading goods and services between corporations. It is currently one of the most important aspects of the Internet to emerge
ADVANTAGES OF E-COMMERCE
  • Faster buying/selling procedure, as well as easy to find products.
  • Buying/selling 24/7.
  • More reach to customers, there is no theoretical geographic limitations.
  • Low operational costs and better quality of services.
  • No need of physical company set-ups.
  • Easy to start and manage a business.
  • Customers can easily select products from different providers without moving around physically.
DISADVANTAGES OF E-COMMERCE
  • Any one, good or bad, can easily start a business. And there are many bad sites which eat up customers’ money.
  • There is no guarantee of product quality.
  • Mechanical failures can cause unpredictable effects on the total processes.
  • As there is minimum chance of direct customer to company interactions, customer loyalty is always on a check.
  • There are many hackers who look for opportunities, and thus an ecommerce site, service, payment gateways, all are always prone to attack.
The Application of Electronic Commerce
Outline Application of Electronic Commerce
eCommerce development and its applications is an unavoidable sector in the present day today life. Given below are the most common eCommerce applications.
  • Retail & wholesale; There are numerous applications for retail as well as wholesale in case of e-commerce. Here comes e-retailing or may be called as online retailing. This refers to the selling of goods and other services through electronic stores from business to consumers. These are designed and equipped using shopping cart model and electronic catalog.
  • Marketing; Using web and ecommerce, data collection about the following are possible 1. Preferences 2. Behaviour 3. Needs 4. Buying patterns The marketing activities like price fixing, product feature and its enhancement, negotiation, and the relationship with the customer can be made using these.
  • Finance; eCommerce is being used by the financial companies to a large extent. By the name finance we know that there will be customers and transactions. The customers can check the balance in their savings account, as well as their loan account. There are features like transferring of money from and to their own accounts, paying of bills online and also e-banking. Online stock trading is also another feature of e-commerce.
  • Manufacturing; eCommerce is included and used in the chain operations (supply) of a company. There are companies that form electronic exchange. This is by providing buying and selling items together, trading market information and the information of runback office like inventory control. This is a way that speeds up the flow of finished goods and the raw materials among the business community members.
  • Auctions; eCommerce customer to customer is direct selling of goods among customers. It includes electronic auctions that involve bidding system. Bidding allows prospective buyers to bid an item. In Airline Company they give bidding opportunity for customers to quote the price for a seat on specific route, date and time.
  • Entertainment; eCommerce application is widely used in entertainment area also for video cataloging, multiplayer games, interactive ads and for online discussion.
  • Education; In educational training also e-commerce has major role for interactive education, video conferencing, online class and for connecting different educational training centers.

The Internet Uses that Negatively Affect our Culture
Outline Internet Uses that Negatively Affect our Culture
Lack Of Face To Face Communication
It sounds quite ironic when the lack of face to face communication is mentioned as one of the negative effects of Internet because the Internet is supposed to bring people closer.
But the fact is that somehow many people find it easier to communicate through the Internet instead of the traditional direct way. They prefer to discuss over Messenger, Viber or other apps available on the Internet. The idea of taking face to face is becoming a tough decision.
Research issued in the International Journal of Organizational Design and Engineering has stated that the face to face communication in teamwork helps people build mutual trust, creative and provide a higher result.
To know more information, please click at: How 20 Interpersonal communication skills, activities, and strategies.When teenagers and students and tend to choose Internet communication and avoid talking directly, their personal relationships with friends and family will be affected.
According to The Washington Post survey and its result, about 6% of participants replied that their relationships got hurt as a consequence of excessive Internet use. It is believed that some people who prefer online chatting because it somehow separates them from the real world.
Lack Of Creativity
The lack of creativity in teenagers and students is also another one of negative effects of Internet rooting from its benefits. One significant feature of Internet is the unlimited sources of information. This feature benefits users by quick access to needed info at ease. However, when everything is available, there is no need for creativity. Students now don’t have to pay much effort on their assignment or project because they only need a few minutes to get all information they need from the Internet then copy paste into their work. This problem is a warning for the increase in plagiarism, leading to the lack of creativity. When this habit happens several times, these young people will be dependent on the Internet to finish their studying. The same situation happens to not only students but also to users at any age. Things get easier in a way that it becomes a hindrance for learning and creativity.
Cyber Bullying
Cyber bullying is basically a term to describe the bullying using the Internet. This disadvantage can be considered as one of the evilest negative effects of Internet. It is never easier for haters to give ugly words toward a person. Celebrities or some kinds of people in protected class are often the victims of cyber bullying. This type of harassment is safer and easier than physical bullying because there is hardly any regulation or law to control the problems. Victims of cyber bullying may feel insulted or embarrassed because of the wicked comments or opinions. The negative effects will be worse on teenagers, especially on those who are in puberty with all the vulnerability and sensitiveness. There is a positive relationship proved between cyber bullying and suicidal attempts by victims. Students are considered to be most bullied on the Internet. A couple of criticism from teachers or cheating from groups of friends can drive a student insane and finally to suicide.
Waste Of Time
It will be a mistake to forget the waste of time when it comes to the negative effects of Internet. The Washington Post revealed that 9% attempted to hide “nonessential Internet use.” In addition, Stanford University also conducted a study showing that 12.4 percent of participants stayed online for a longer time than they intended very often. It is obvious that if you spend too much time on the Internet, you will have to cut down on time for other activities. As an infinite storage of entertainment, the Internet is somehow similar to the black hole that leaves no way to get out. A lot of students and teenagers spend most of their time just on watching films, surfing Facebook and playing games instead of learning or doing other meaningful activities. If the original purpose of Internet was to help students and teenagers work more efficiently, it now makes them do no work at all. Especially for students, the explorations and advancement of Internet turn it into a promising distraction. As the result, their academic result goes down gradually while the electronic bill payment keeps increasing.
Abandonment of Family
The excessive using of anything always creates side effects. The Internet is not an exception. When students and teenagers use of Internet is too much, the abandonment of family will occur as one of the negative effects of Internet. The tragedy of a couple in Korea will be the most appropriate example for this effect because they were so busy with their virtual baby and forget about their real baby. Finally, this poor baby died of hunger and of the abandonment of his parents. When people spend most of their time on surfing the Internet, they become insensitive to the real life and people around them, including members of their own family. Obviously, the original purpose of parents when they equip their children with the Internet is to open a door to the new world, not to close themselves in a fiction planet without family. For many students, the Internet is the only friend they have. The time for family, for parents is replaced by hours of Internet browsing. They ignore the family and hesitate to talk or interact with other members.
Privacy Disrupted
Occurring due to the free information flow of Internet, privacy threat is one of the negative effects of Internet that you should know about. Teenagers exchange their picture, private information or personal chat every day in social networking. Many students even update their ID number, their class number and other information relating to personal security. They are not fully aware of the risk privacy threat that their information can be easily approached by strangers and be misused. Their privacy stands a risk of being disrupted and hindered. Therefore, keep in mind that not everything is exchangeable on the Internet. For your best benefits and to stay away of these negative effects of Internet, be careful with all the private information you upload and make sure who is available to reach your information.
Insomnia
For anyone does not know what insomnia is, it is a sleeping disorder that happens when people are not able to rest or sleep. And the powerful global system, the Internet, somehow is one of the reasons for insomnia. It cannot be denied that teenagers and students are sticking with the Internet all day. They take advantages of any time possible to browsing the Internet, even the sleeping time. Just after several days, they stay up late to check their Facebook or Instagram, it will become a habit and believe me, it is not easy to get rid of it. Moreover, the green light from the computer screen or other types of electronic items can keep you away from your sleep. If you concern about insomnia We all know that staying up late is not good for our health. When the body cannot have enough time to rest, many health problems will appear


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