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Monday, June 18, 2018

GEOGRAPHY - Form Six - POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT




POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT

Definitions of Population

- Population is total number of living things of a particular type or group who live in a particular area or environment.

- Population is the number of organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area.

- Population refers to all the people or animals of a particular type or group that live in one country, area, or town.

Definitions of Human Population

- Human population is the number of people living in a particular area, from a village to the world as a whole.

- Human population is the whole number of people or inhabitants in a country or region

- Population refers to a collection of humans and their entire race. 

- Human population is the numerical value of resident human being in an area/place.

- Population is the number of people in a city or town, region, country or world

- Human population is the total of individuals occupying an area or making up a whole

- Human population is the whole number of inhabitants occupying an area (such as a country or the world) and continually being modified by increases (births and immigrations) and losses (deaths and emigrations). 

Population in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

Demography is the study of human populations - their size, composition and distribution across space, and the process through which populations change. Births, deaths and migration are the ‘big three’ of demography, jointly producing population stability or change.


Population is related to the development process and environment. This is because it is a reproductive resource that transform the environmental resources to bring development. as such population is both a means and goal of all development. thus it requires essential services like education, law and order. as a resource, it provides labour force, especially when skilled so as to be used in the production process in various sectors of the economy.

Population can have negative effects on development especially when there is low education and technology, overpopulation and under-population. over population leads to excessive utilisation of resources, poor housing, pollution and conflict over resources. Under-population leads to under utilisation of some resources.all this help the government to plan and implement effectively the process of providing social services.

Population is usually determined by a process called census (a process of collecting, analyzing, compiling and publishing data).

Population in Lagos, Nigeria


Defination of Terms

1. Population Size. Is the total number of people living in the country; It is obtained through census.

2. Population Structure. is the composition of a given population in terms of age and sex at a particular time. Census, vital registration or sample survey is used to obtain information on age and sex of an individual person from the entire population.

3. Population Distribution refers to the way in which people are spread out across the earth’s surfaces. Also, it can defined as occurrence or non occurrence of people in certain geographical unit.

4. Population Composition. refers to the geographical make up of persons in a given locality which includes, sex, age, marital status, education, occupation, income level, religion, ethnic group and race.

5. Sex Ratio. This is the number of males per 1000 females in a given population.

6. Dependency Ratio. Is the part of the population that is not involved in productive activities. The dependency ratio can be categorized into two;
a) Youth dependency ratio: Includes those who are under 15 years.
b) Old age dependency ratio: Includes those who are above 65 years.

 


Characteristics of Population

1. It is unevenly distributed over the surface such that some areas have low density, others have medium density and some areas have high density population. Other areas have no population at all and are referred to as non-ecumene.

2. Population is dynamic in the sense that it is migratory as people move from one place to another either permanentally or temporarily depending on the prevailng conditions.

3. Population has age-sex structure. This refers to the composition or proposition of population in terms of sex, age, occupation etc.

4. Population is characterized by variation in the level of development and technology. Some countries are more developed due to the use of advanced technology while other counties use low technology.

5. Population usually faces problems like diseases such as HIV/AIDS, environmental calamities like famine, floods, earthquakes and environmental pollutio

Importance of Studying Population

In studying population, population data are obtained through census, vital registration and sample survey. The data obtained are useful in different ways;

1. It can encourage intensification of agricultural activities as a result of the reduction in the size of arable land.

2. The information obtained during the National Census is used by the Government for Planning Public Services e.g Schools, Hospitals, Markets, etc.

3. Enable to know the age and sex in a country e.g: In Tanzania the number of female is higher than of male.

4. Enables the government to combat mortality rate which may lead to loss of man power if not well managed.

5. Migration can lead to the expansion of market for the local goods in the destination regions

6. Enables to know the number of manpower skilled and unskilled.

7. It can stimulate the diffusion of technology into the destination from other areas the people who migrate posses different skills of different environmental orientations.

8. It can stimulate the growth of towns (urbanisation) and the associated advantages.

 


POPULATION DISTRIBUTION

Population Distribution is the way in which people are spread out across the earth Surface. Distribution is uneven and changes over period of time. Population density is the number of people per unit of area. This describes the concentration of people in a specific area. There are places where people are concentrated in one area while the land in the neighborhood may be unoccupied. Population density is obtained by taking the number of people in a given area and dividing that number by the total area of the place. Thus it gives us the number of persons per unit area of land. Population density can be described as dense, moderate, or sparse.

Factors Influencing Population Distribution and Density

1. Relief (Topography). Where the slope is steep there is low or no population due to poor soil and nature of the land, but on gentle slope or flat surface there is high population since soil is good and mechanization can take place easily. Also low land tends to flood usually since people avoid settling in those areas.

2. Climate. Areas with reliable (moderate) rain have attracted high population but where there is poor rain like in the desert there is low population. Also areas with high or very low temperatures do not attract population while areas with moderate temperature attract population (high).

3. Vegetation. In areas where dense vegetation is difficult to clear like in Tropical forest of Amazon and Congo basin discourage people to live leading to sparse population or no population at all. Dense vegetation hinders penetration and development. In less dense vegetation people are attracted since they grow crops after clearing for cultivation.

4. Soil. Thin, infertile and badly leached soil discourages settlement since they can’t support agriculture. Good soil attracts population.

5. Mineral and energy resources. Area with mineral and energy resources attract population e.g. rand of S. Africa, iron and coalfield in Europe and southern part of W. Africa where there are rich mineral deposits like diamond, oil, etc.

6. Natural Hazards. Areas with natural hazards like floods in low land, earthquakes, and tornadoes are avoided by people.

7. Diseases and Pests. People like settling in areas which are free of diseases and pests. There is high population in highlands of Tanzania which have healthy climate like Arusha. But areas with high incidence of disease and pests infestation like mosquitoes that causes malaria, tsetse flies discourage population settlement.

8. Social – cultural aspects. Some tribes have a tradition of going to live in areas which have been left by their ancestors. Traditional beliefs like superstitions can make people avoid living in certain areas due to fear of risking their life.

9. Political factors. Area with political stability and peace attract population but where there is political instability does not attract population. People avoid settled in area that has political conflict like in Sudan and Somalia.

10. Transport and communication. Areas which are served with transport and communication attract high population since they can transport their goods to the markets areas. Also area where social services are ready available like in towns, unlike the rural areas where social services are poorly available.

 


POPULATION CHANGE

Population change is the growth or decline in population i.e Increase or decrease population can change by positive growth and negative growth. The main factor for population change;
1. Fertility rate.
2. Mortality rate.
3. Migration.

Factors For Population Change

1. Fertility/Birthrate
It is also known as fertility rate. Fertility refers to the ability to conceive and produce. It is measured by counting the number of people (live births in a population). Fertility rate is influenced by factors like; Level of education. Urbanization. Birth control measures. Cultural belief. Prestige. Early marriage. Source of labour. Preference of sex.

2. Mortality/Death rate
Is also called mortality. It refers to the number of deaths within a given population. Death rate can be categorized into;

a) Infant mortality rate. The number of death from 0-2 years.

b) Child mortality rate. Number of death of children aged between 1-5 years per 1000 live birth.

c) Adult mortality rate. Number of adults dying per 1000 of the total population. Hence; Large scale mortality may be caused by;
-Severe hunger/famine.
-Diseases.
-Natural disasters.
-Wars.
- Accidents.

3. Migration
Is the movement of people from one place or region to another which results in changes of residence which may be temporary or permanent. Immigration: People come into a new area and are called immigrants. Emigration: People leave their native land for other lands and these people are called emigrants

Types of Migration
There are two types of migration, namely;
i. Internal migration.
ii. External (International) migration.

And these types of migration can be permanent, temporary, voluntary and involuntary.

A) INTERNAL MIGRATION

Is the movement of People within a country, it can be permanent, temporary, voluntary or forced (involuntary
Factors Influences Internal Migration
- Trade
- Education
- Search for jobs.
- Settlement.
- Search for fertile soils.

Forms of Internal Migration

a) Rural to Urban Migration. Refers to the movement of People from rural to urban or towns search for jobs, better social services, education.

b) Rural to Rural Migration. Refers to the movement of People from rural to rural e.g Nomadic pastoralists.

c) Urban to Rural Migration. From towns to villages for investing, job purpose, setting up industries and other projects.

d) Urban to Urban Migration. From one town to another for business, better employment, education etc.

B) EXTERNAL MIGRATION

Is also called international, interstate or inter regional migration. Is the movement of people from their own countries to other countries.

Causes of Migration

There are many reasons why people choose to migrate. The following are some of them;

1. Pressure on land. People move to areas with available land for cultivation, settlement etc.

2. Availability of employment opportunities. Move to areas where employment is possible e.g rural to rural, to work in plantations, mines,etc.

3. Creation of wealth. People migrate to other countries with aim of making wealth quickly e.g: Tanzanians move to South Africa

4. Religious conflicts. Which may result to chaos in a country

5. Political instability. Like civil wars cause people to migrate e.g Like that of Rwanda and Burundi has resulted to influx of refugees in East African countries.

6. Natural disasters. Epidemic diseases, floods, earthquakes, drought may cause people to migrate to better areas where it is safe.

7. Forced migration. People forced to move from the area e.g Asians were expelled in Uganda during the leadership or military regime of Iddi Amin, the slave trade of 17th and 18th century is an example of forced migration (Involuntary).

8. Cultural beliefs People may move from one place to another due to cultural beliefs that are not friendly.

Migration

Effects of Population Change

The effect of population change are quite varied. Population change affects both the individuals as well as the nations at large. The effect can be positive or negative.

a) Effects on the Individual

A high fertility rate results in a large number of children that a family has to look after. Migration has its own effects on individuals in the number of ways.

1. Some individuals may change their life styles by becoming more sophisticated. This happens after gaining more skills and exposure to more sophisticated lifestyles where the individual migrated to.

2. Some individuals after migrating to urban areas and getting jobs, may take a much longer time to get married.

3. When spouses are separated for long periods of time, this may lead to break up of marriages. Either spouse may engage in extra marital relationships during the period of absence of the partner.

4. Some individuals who migrate to urban areas lose their cultural values and this lead to immorality. Some turn to crime.

5. Some people saves lot of money from the income they get from working. The income is used to improve their standards of living.

b) Effects on the Nation

Over population is a situation where by a region or country has such a high population that it cannot be supported fully due to a strain on the available resources. In such a situation, many people live in object poverty.

1. Over population also leads to unemployment or even under development of a nation or even under employment.

2. Over population lead to poor housing and health facilities because demand for these facilities is far greater than the supply.

3. Agricultural resources are underutilized because of shortage of land and traditional land tenure systems which hinder modernization of agriculture

4. Slow industrial growth because of shortage of skilled labor. Although there is a large labor force, it is largely unskilled.

NB: A large population increases the demand for food. This demand reduces the production of cash crops while increasing production of food crops.

OVERPOPULATION

Is a situation where people in a particular country are too many in relation to the available resources. It is also a situation whereby the population of a country is above the optimum population. This situation will force people to compete for the available resources and due to shortage of resources there will be general decline in the standard of living. Overpopulation has both negative and positive effects.

Positive Effects of Overpopulation

1. Defence: A large population makes it possible to mobilize enough people to defend the integrity of the country in times of war or during any other emergencies.

2. Increase in labour market: Increasing population ensures increase in the labour force.Lack of growth in the labour force will make a country static and retarded economically.

3. Large market: Investors would like to invest in a country with a large population. As the population continues to grow, so will be the growth in demand for food, shelter, clothing etc.

Negative Effects of Overpopulation

1. Poverty: As a result of overpopulation, the available resources would not be able  to support the population and this will result to abject poverty in the country.

2. Unemployment: A fast growth in population means a large number of persons coming to the labour market for whom it may not be possible to provide employment. Consequently, the number of people looking for job outruns available resources. In fact, in underdeveloped countries, the number of job seekers is expanding so fast that despite all efforts towards planned development, it has not been possible to provide employment to all. Unemployment, underemployment and disguised employment are common features in these countries. The rapidly rising population makes it almost impossible for economically backward countries, like Tanzania, to solve their problem of unemployment.

3. Social problems: Overpopulation brings about social problems such as bribery, prostitution, armed robbery, etc.

4. A decrease in the standard of living: Overpopulation leads to a fall in the standard of living. As a result of increased number of people, demand for essential commodities becomes highly competitive and it is those that are rich that would be able to afford them, thereby bringing a fall in the standard of living.

5. Poor housing and healthcare: Overpopulation leads to poor housing and inadequate health facilities because demand for these facilities is far greater than the supply.

6. Shortage of food: A large population increases the demand for food. This demand reduces the production of cash crops while increasing production of food crops. And because the population is expanding while the arable land used for food production remains constant, eventually a food shortage arises.

7. Increase in government expenses: The government will always strive to provide all the necessary social services to the whole population. Though the government has to spend a lot on providing basic facilities like education, housing and medical aid, rapid increase in population make the burden heavier. Thus, overpopulation would lead to increased government expenses on education, healthcare, housing, water supply, and all other social services.

8. Adverse effect on environment: Due overpopulation, a large number of people are being pushed in ecologically sensitive areas such as hill sides and tropical forests. This leads to the cutting of forests for cultivation resulting to several environmental changes.

9. Declining trend of agricultural development: Agricultural resources are underutilized because of shortage of land and traditional land tenure systems which hinder modernization of agriculture. Also there is slow industrial growth because of shortage of skilled labour. Although there is a large labour force, it is largely unskilled.

10. Slow modernization: Most overpopulated, developing nations have a population that is largely traditional. The bias of traditional attitudes slows down modern development as many people stick to the traditional customs and ways of life.

Overpopulation

UNDERPOPULATION

Is a situation whereby the size of the population is small in relation to available resources of the country. Underpopulation can also be defined as a situation whereby there are too few people to develop fully the economic potential of an area or country.

Causes of Underpopulation

1. An increase in death rate: Natural Catastrophes such as earthquakes, flood etc. will lead to an increase in death rate. Therefore, the country witnesses a reduction in human population.

2. A fall in birth rate: When a country decides to reduce the number of children for fear of eventual overpopulation or any socio-political factor which does not favour children, the country becomes underpopulated.

3. High level of emigration: A persistent increase in emigration over immigration leads to a reduction in a country’s population.

Underpopulation has also got Positive and Negative Effects to a nation

a) Positive Effects of Underpopulation

1. No congestion: A country with less population experiences little or no congestion because of low population density.

2. Abundant employment opportunities: As a result of small size of the population, there will be enough job opportunities for the people.

3. Increased social and infrastructural facilities: An underpopulated country experiences a higher per capita in terms of social and infrastructural facilities available to the people in the country.

4. Availability of idle resources: The fact that a country is less populated means that the resources available in that country are higher than the number of people; hence, many idle resources would abound everywhere.

b) Negative Effects of Under-population

1. Lower standard of living: Underpopulation leads to lower standard of living as a result of inadequate labour force that would have conveniently boost output and production of goods and services.

2. Lack of adequate manpower: Underpopulation results to shortage of labour with that effect of low investments and income. Inadequate labour leads to slow industrial growth. When skilled labour is imported, then the cost of production and hence the produced goods and services, goes up.

3. Underutilization of resources: Resources are highly underutilized in a country with low population. A country cannot fully develop its resources when it is underpopulated. Agriculture is not fully developed and minerals may remain unexploited because of shortage of local labour.

4. Inadequate market: A small population means a narrow market for the locally produced goods and services. Such a population does not support large-scale production of goods and services even when the standard of living is very high.

5. High transportation costs: When the population is small and scattered over a wide area, vehicles have to travel long distances to reach individuals. This makes transportation of goods and services expensive, a fact which hampers internal trade.

6. Lack of people to defend the country: At times of war and emergency, a country might find it difficult to mobilize enough people to defend it.

7. Low creativity: Underpopulation causes lack of pressure on the available resources. This hinders creativity because of limited competition.

Underpopulation

POPULATION DATA

Population data means information on population. Or, is the information pertaining to population and relate direct with some economic, social and demographic matters.

Sources of Population Data

There are two basic sources of population data, There are Primary sources and Secondary sources.

1. Primary sources, this is a source of population data which is obtained directly via registration of person like registration of births and deaths, data is also obtained first hand when there is population census and when sample survey are limited amount of data could also be obtained from resourceful persons.

2. Secondary sources of population data, include reports in population which are compiled and published as census reports, data is also obtained from textbooks and other reference books, atlases, magazines, newspaper, journals, periodicals and research papers. It can also be obtained from draft reports, annual reports as well statistical abstracts which are published annually and are available in government offices. Population data may also be obtained or available in the electronic media as well as on the internet.

Interpretation of Population Data
When population data has been collected, it is subjected to processing or analysis. It is during this process that calculations are made, these include means densities, birth and death rate, sex ratios and other relevant information population Statistics can be studied in their raw form or in a processed form by studying such information conclusion can be made and explanation sought.

Uses of Population Data

1. Population numbers and density enable the government to plan on low to allocate resources. Also the knowledge of population can be useful in solving land congestion.

2. Data birth and death rates as well as fertility and mortality enable government to plan how to provide medical services and health education, especially where the death rate is very high.

3. Data on migration can enable a government to plan how to curb influx of people into urban areas from the rural regions if corrective measure are taken, loss of man power in the rural areas would be curbed as well as reducing influx of immigrants in urban centres.

4. Knowing the number of dependents enable the government to plan for expansion of schools, medical and other social amenities to take care of large number of children below the age of 15. When the government has ideas about the number of the aged, It can budget for provision of welfare better.

5. It enable planning for creation of jobs, population census data provide information about overpopulation and under population.

POPULATION PROBLEMS

Population problem refers to the problems which human population face in a certain area, these problems include;

1. Lack of development policies and laws that support family stability.
2. Lack of development of talents and capabilities of the children and youth.

3. Lack of preparedness plan for handling refugees.

4. Failure in encouraging private sectors and religious organisation to invest in provision of social services for people with disabilities as well as poor government policies on people with disabilities

5. Lack of provision of social services especially health services to adult people
6. Lack of social security measure that address problems of elders

Analysis of Population Problems

Rapid human population growth has a number of consequences. It is unfortunate that population grows fastest in the world's poorest countries despite the fact that the resources in these countries are not sufficient to sustain the ever-increasing human population. High fertility rates have historically been strongly correlated with poverty and high childhood mortality rates. Falling fertility rates are generally associated with improved standards of living, increased life expectancy, and lowered infant mortality. Overpopulation and poverty have long been associated with increased death and disease.

Optimal population is when resources match with existing population.

The Effects of the Population Change on Economic Growth, Labour, Human Needs and Investment, and Suggest Possible Solutions

Population problems arising from birth rates, deaths rates and migration have an impact on economic growth, labour, human need and investment. For example, if the population increases very rapidly it results to availability of labour which is cheap but people with low incomes. Investment in consumer goods will increase as the result of increasing demand for goods and services to cater for needs of the entire population.

In general, the effects of the population change on economic growth, labour, human needs and investment include the following:

1. Depletion of natural resources: Problems associated with overpopulation include the increased demand for resources such as fresh water, fossil fuels, land and food. These finite resources are consumed faster than their rate of regeneration. Eventually, the resources will get used up altogether.

2. Poverty: High population leads to low per capita income and hence abject poverty. The consequences of poverty are many. They include increase in the number of beggars and street children especially in urban areas, starvation and malnutrition, and deterioration in living conditions. Poor people lack access to enough land and income to meet basic needs. A lack of basic needs results in physical weakness and poor health. Poor health decreases the ability of the poor to work and put them deeper into poverty.

3. Environmental degradation: Many environmental problems, such as rising levels of
atmospheric carbon dioxide, global warming, and pollution, are aggravated by the population expansion. The overuse of coal, oil and natural gas, has started producing
some serious effects on our environment. Rise in the number of vehicles and industries have badly affected the quality of air. Rise in amount of carbon dioxide gas emissions leads to global warming. Melting of polar ice caps, changing climate patterns, and rise in sea level are few of the consequences that we might have to face due to environmental pollution.

4. Conflicts and wars: Overpopulation in developing countries puts a major strain on the resources they should be utilizing for development. Conflicts over water are becoming a source of tension between countries, which could result in wars. The best example is the recent conflict over the ownership of Lake Nyasa between Tanzania and Malawi where Tanzania insists that the boundary is in the centre of the lake while Malawi demands to be the owner of the entire lake.

5. Increased health and disease problems: People tightly packed into unsanitary housing are highly vulnerable to diseases and health problems. Tuberculosis and enteric diseases like typhoid, dysentery and cholera are very prevalent in congested settlements. Poor housing and settlements result from overpopulation, in which case the rapid increase in population leads to a high demand for housing which does not match the provision of better housing facilities.

6. Rise in unemployment: When a country becomes overpopulated, it gives rise to unemployment as there are fewer jobs to support a large number of people. Rise in unemployment gives rise to crime as people will steal various items to feed their family
and provide them with basic amenities of life or they engage in other unlawful activities
such as drug trafficking, prostitution and robbery.

7. High cost of living: As the difference between demand and supply continues to expand due to overpopulation, it raises the prices of various commodities including food, shelter and healthcare. This means that people have to pay more to survive and feed their families.

8. Inadequate social services: Population increase leads to inadequacy of social amenities and services such as healthcare and education as the limited services available cannot sufficiently support the ever-growing population. Underpopulation is also a population problem with many consequences. The following are some problems associated with underpopulation:

9. In many industrialized countries, population problems include the increasing number of the aged people due to high life expectancy in these countries. There is also a shortage of labour because of few young people. This is mainly because of serious birth control measures taken to control rapid population growth.

Possible Solutions to Population Problems

In order to reduce the adverse impacts of overpopulation, lessening measures, such as spreading awareness and education about overpopulation, enacting birth control measures and regulations, and providing universal access to birth control devices and family planning, must be taken. Possible solutions to population problems include the following:

1. Better education: Educating the masses helps them understand the need to have one or two children at the most. Families that are facing a hard life and choose to have four or five children should be discouraged.

2. Family planning: As population of this world is growing at a rapid pace, raising awareness among people regarding family planning and letting them know about serious effects of overpopulation can help curb population growth. One of the best ways is to let them know about various safe sex techniques and contraceptives methods available to avoid any unwanted pregnancies.

3. Tax benefits or allowances: Governments of various countries might have to come with various policies related to tax exemptions to curb overpopulation. One of them might be to waive certain part of income tax or lowering rates of income tax for those married couples who have single or two children. As we humans are more inclined towards money, this may produce some positive results.

4. Knowledge of sex education: Imparting sex education to young kids at elementary level should be a must. Most parents feel shy in discussing such things with their kids, a fact which results in their children going out and look out for such information on internet or discuss it with their peers. Mostly, the information is incomplete which results in sexually active teenagers unaware of contraceptives and embarrassed to seek information about the same. It is therefore important for parents and teachers to shed their old inhibitions and make their kids or students aware of solid sex education.

5. Improvement of rural environment: To check the influx of rural people into urban areas in search of a better welfare, deliberate efforts should be taken to improve the rural set-ups. These include provision of agricultural inputs to farmers on subside basis, improvement of rural access roads, and provision of basic economic services and amenities.

6. Environmental conservation: Governments should take measures to minimize the environmental degradation. Such measures may include encouraging people to plant trees and apply proper cultural practices.

7. Creating employment opportunities: Governments should create job opportunities through establishment of industries, encouraging investors in various economic sectors, providing soft loans, and offering entrepreneurship education which will prepare the people for self-employment rather than depending on salaried jobs, among other measures.



POPULATION POLICY

Population policy refers to the statement law or regulations enacted to some demographic goals. It is a deliberate effort by the government to influence the demographic factors like fertility, mortality and migration. Thus the ultimate goal of the population policy is to influence population size, composition, distribution and growth. The policy also tends to take into consideration the relationship between population and development as well as the impact on environment condition.

The ultimate goal of the population policy is to influence population size, composition, distribution and growth. The policy also tends to take into consideration the relationship between population and development as well as the impact of population on the environment.

Characteristics of Population Policy

1. Selectivity
Population policies are selective as they cover only a section or some sections of the demographic factors where the regulation is intended. For instance, a policy may be put in place to regulate fertility, mortality or migration or a mixture of these.

2. Explicity
Explicit policies are associated with the stated intention of a nation or government to influence population events. The stipulation in explicit population policies are clear and to the point. Explicit policies can stem from the law, policy declaration by a party or directive issued by the president of the country. Explicit laws are well stipulated and strictly followed or reinforced. Such policies prevailed in China where the limit in the number of children was set and incentives were given to all those who could follow while penalties were imposed to those who did not follow. Other countries with explicit policy are Sweden and England. Hence the explicit policy is the elaborate statement that spells out the underlying objective, goals, targets, policy program and implementation.

3. Implicity
Implicit policies refer to a particular law, regulation or statement, which may have direct or indirect effect on population growth. Implicit policy is not as elaborate as explicit since it is somehow unclear and cannot be easily understood leading to failure in terms of implementation. Implicit policies are unstated, sometimes because the objective is universally acceptable, such as lowering mortality, or because publicising the policy may cause political controversy. For instance, a government may give financial support for family planning at MCH (Maternal and Child Health) clinics, but if family planning is controversial, the maternal and child health services of the clinics may be emphasised in the government’s public statements.

Population policies, whether explicit or implicit, have the ultimate aim of influencing a country’s population size, composition, distribution and growth.

 


Comparison of the National Population Policy on Family Planning Strategies in Tanzania to the Population Policies of other Countries

1. TANZANIA POPULATION POLICY

Tanzania adopted a National Population Policy (NPP) in 1992. The policy recognizes that there is no simple cause and effect relationship between population growth and economic growth, and that population growth may not be the primary obstacle to development. Prior to the adoption of the explicit national population policy in 1992, Tanzania pursued implicit population policies and programmes. These policies and programmes were reflected in actions taken by the government in dealing with various issues pertaining to population.

These included policies and programmes such as: settlement schemes of early 1960s, villagization programme of mid 1970s, provision and expansion of free social services (health, education and safe water), literacy campaigns, provision of family planning services as part of MCH services, limiting employment-related benefits (such as tax relief) to four children, and paid maternity leave of 84 days at most once in every three years, and census taking place after every ten years. As the economic crisis became severe during the 1980s, the gains achieved earlier, especially in social sectors could not be maintained.

The Impacts of Population Policy to the Country

The adoption of the National Population Policy in 1992 resulted in resettlement of the population in Tanzania. Villages became more or less nucleated or near nucleated in form. This prompted the government to serve the people in a new version with education and healthcare. A down-top administration system was adopted, whereby development projects are suggested and managed by people at the grassroots.

Social services such as water supply, education and healthcare expanded and reached a greater number of Tanzanians. Preliminary programmes on family planning and MCH services were adopted. The employment-related benefits such as paid maternity leave of 84 days once in three years was implemented. The census taking place after every 10 years is another good effect of NPP.

1. Considerable awareness of population issues particularly those related to reproductive health and child survival by the masses of the people. For example, fertility, infant and child mortality has declined overtime.

2. The adopted population policy recognizes the links and interrelationships between
population, resources, the environment, and development.

3. Expansion and/or introduction of population studies in institutions of higher learning in the country.

4. Increased number and capacity of NGOs engaged in population related activities
including advocacy and social mobilization, service delivery and capacity building.

5. High knowledge and the use of contraceptive methods among both men and women and male involvement in family planning. This has seen a marked increase in use various contraceptive methods such as injectable contraceptives, oral contraceptives, condom, IUD (intra-uterine device), vasectomy, and tubal ligation.

Tanzania is not the only country which has adopted a population policy. Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and launched its first national population policy in 1988. In the 1950's, China was overpopulated and in 1952 it became the first country to introduce a population policy.

Tanzania

2. NIGERIA POPULATION POLICY

Nigeria population policy and strategies for family planning
Nigeria launched its first population policy in 1988. The policy intended to improve the population's standard of living and quality of life. Major areas of the policy include the following:

a) Reduction of fertility rate of 6 or above children per family to 4.
b) An optimum marriage age of 18 for women and 24 years for men.
c) Advocating the restriction of pregnancies from 18 to 35 years of age.
d) Extending the coverage of family planning services.

The policy resulted in a population growth rate of 3% by 2003. Then the government adopted another family planning policy in 2004 which aimed at reducing population growth rate to 2%. Components of the population program include the provision of family planning services to all those who want them and the strengthening of maternal and child health services.

Nigeria

3. CHINA POPULATION POLICY

China population policy and strategies for family planning
In 1950s, china had a philosophy of “A large population gives a strong nation.” This philosophy led to high birth ratWe ean Ldo fvaes t tpoo pHuelaart iofnro cmha Ynogue. Previous Chinese governments had encouraged people to have a lot of children to increase the country's workforce. But by 1970s the government realised that current rates of population growth would soon become unsustainable. Hence, the Chinese government introduced a number of measures to curb population growth and promote economic development. The most important of the new measures was a one-child policy, which decreed that couples in China could only have one child.

China

THE ONE-CHILD POLICY

The one-child policy, a part of the family planning policy, was a population planning policy of China. It was introduced in 1979 and began to be formally phased out in 2015. The policy allowed exceptions for many groups, including ethnic minorities. The result was dramatic. Fertility rates dropped from 5.9 births per woman in 1970 to about 1.6 in the late 1990s.

The one-child policy was revised over the years to allow more couples to have an additional child, until the government allowed all married couples to have two children
beginning 2016, mainly to combat shrinking workforce and rapidly ageing population. In 2007, 36% of China's population was subject to a strict one-child restriction, with an additional 53% being allowed to have a second child if the first child was a girl.

Benefits of the Policy included
1. Increased access to education for all,
2. Plus childcare and healthcare offered to families that followed this rule.

Problems with Enforcing the Policy

1. Those couples who had more than one child didn't receive these benefits and were fined. Provincial governments imposed fines for violations, and the local and national governments created commissions to raise awareness and carry out registration and inspection work.

2. The policy was keenly resisted in rural areas, where it was traditional to have large families. In urban areas, the policy has been enforced strictly but remote rural areas have been harder to control.

3. Many people claim that some women, who became pregnant after they had already had a child, were forced to have an abortion and many women were forcibly sterilised.

4. When couples intended to marry, they were required to apply for permission from the state. The same case applied when they wished to have a child. Family planning officers visited homes and workplaces to ensure that families followed the rules.

Chinese Parents with One Child

Impact of the Policy

One of the positive impacts of the one-child policy is that
1. the birth rate in China has fallen since 1979, and the rate of population growth is now 0.7%.

There have been negative impacts too

1. Due to a traditional preference for boys. Large numbers of female babies have ended up homeless or in orphanages, and in some cases killed. In 2000, it was reported that 90 per cent of foetuses aborted in China were female.

2. As a result, the gender balance of the Chinese population has become distorted. Today it is thought that men outnumber women by more than 60 million. On current trends, there will be more than 30 million “unmarriageable” men in China by 2020.

Long-Term Implications

China's one-child policy has been somewhat relaxed in recent years. Couples can now apply to have a second child if their 􀃒rst child is a girl, or if both parents are themselves only-children. While China's population is now rising more slowly, it still has a very large total population (1.3 billion in 2008) and China faces new problems, including:

1. The falling birth rate - leading to a rise in the relative number of elderly people; and
2. Fewer people of working age to support the growing number of elderly dependants, which means in the future China could have an ageing population.

Principle to Guide Policy Implementation

1. Consideration of regional and district variation with regard to the level of socio-economic development

2. Adherence to the development vision which among other things emphasize the role of the market in determining resources allocation and uses

3. Continued democratization of the political system with its intended political pluralism as symbolized in the emergence of various political parties or actors and mushroom of independent mass media

4. Thrift exploitation of the country’s non-renewable resources taking consideration the needs of future generations.

5. Recognition and appreciation of the central role of the government, NGOs, private sector communities and individuals in population and development.

Addition:

Population Policy can be Explicit or Implicit

a) Explicit Population Policy. Refer to the document or clear statement issued by the government department and its commission which is intended to control population growth and raise the standard of life of the people in the country.

b) Explicit Policies can also stem from the law, policy declaration by a party or directive issued by the President of the country. Explicit laws are well stipulated and strictly followed or reinforced. Such policies prevailed in China where the limit in the number of children was set and incentives were given to all those who could follow while penalties were given to those who did not follow. Other countries with explicit policy are Sweden and England. Hence the explicit policy is the elaborate statement that spells out the rationale objective, goals, targets policy program and implementation.

Refer to particular law, regulation or statement, which may have direct or indirect effect on population growth. Implicit policy is not as elaborate as explicit since it is somehow unclear and cannot be easily understood leading to failure in terms of implementation.
Population policies, whether explicit or implicit, have the ultimate aim of influencing a country’s population size, composition, distribution and growth.

Principle to Guide Policy Implementation

1. Consideration of regional and district variation with regard to the level of socio-economic development

2. Adherence to the development vision which among other things emphasize the role of the market in determining resources allocation and uses

3. Continued democratization of the political system with its intended political pluralism as symbolized in the emergence of various political parties or actors and mushroom of independent mass media

4. Thrift exploitation of the country’s non-renewable resources taking consideration the needs of future generations.

5. Recognition and appreciation of the central role of the government, NGOs, private sector communities and individuals in population and development.

Justification of the Population Policy
This policy takes cognizance of the achievement, constraint and limitation of implementing post population policies as well as new development and continuing challenges.

Achievements both Implicit and Explicit Population Policies

The achievement of both implicit and explicit population policies includes the followings:

1. Considerable awareness of population issues particularly those related to reproductive health and child survival by the masses of the people for example fertility, infant and child mortality has decline overtime

2. Adoption of an explicit population policy in 1992, which recognised the links and interrelationship between population, resources, the environment and development.

3. Expansion and /or introduction of population studies in institutions of higher learning in the country

4. Increased number and capacity of NGOs engaged in population related activities including advocacy and social mobilisation, service delivery and capacity building.

5. High knowledge and use of contraceptive methods among both men and women and male involvement in family planning which has increased contraceptive prevalence from about 10 in 1980s to 16 in 1996.

Comparison of the National Population policy on Family Planning

Strategies in Tanzania to the population policies of other countries Tanzania is not the only country which has adopted a population policy. In the 1950's, China was overpopulated and in 1952 it became the first country to introduce a population policy. Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and launched its first population policy in 1988.





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