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Saturday, June 16, 2018



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Schemes of Work 2024

Kenya Notes


Conversation is a form of communication between two or more people. The conversation may be bases on a certain topic / issue or subject or event that needs the sharing of ideas or information.

A conversation or discussion normally involves spoken language used during interviews, telephone conversation between a father / mother and son daughter or any person. Actors or players also use conversation style.

Observe good grammar and tone when involved in formal conversation. Informal/casual conversation allow you to be free to choose any language style and tone depending on the person you are talking to and the situation in which the conversation takes place.


Study the following conversation between Danes and Norman in the PCCB office at Morogoro.

Norman: Good morning?
Danes: Good morning, How are you?

Norman: I’m fine! Excuse me what is your name?
Danes: My name is Danes.

Norman: Do you mind if ask you a question?
Danes: No, but am sorry I have to leave now!

Norman: Where are you going?
Danes: I have to visit at ant - corruption office at Ifakara.

Norman: what is wrong there?
Danes: I want to go and have discussion with the PCCB manager on corruption in Tanzania.

Norman: May you tell me one impact of corruption?
Danes: What? Pardon! Can you explain to me what you mean?

Norman: My point is, I want you to explain to me how corruption affects the society in Tanzania?
Danes: Of course, corruption is a great issue in Tanzania. It leads to problems such as Unemployment and poverty because the economy in the country falls in the hand of few people.

Norman: Ok, thank you for you are explanation.
Danes: That is all, I have nothing to add, and shall we stop here?

Norman: Yes, goodbye!
Danes: Goodbye!

Activity 1         
Now in group of four, practice introducing your friend to the other person. Write down your conversation. (In not less than 20 lines)



Activity 2    
Study the problems mentioned by your teacher:    
1. Discuss how they can be resolved.
2. Discuss the appropriate language to use for each solution.
3. Suggest solutions to the problems.

4. Play a role of a person being advised on how to resolve a problem that he /she has.  
5. One student will play the role of the advisor and the other the role of a person with a problem.

Negotiation Skills

Activity 3 
Practice the conversation below in pairs.

Student: Excuse me sir, can I have minute with you please?
Teacher: Yes, please.

Student: Sir I have a class project and I need to interview three teachers
Teacher: That’s what you want? I have been interviewed by three of you classmate. That’s enough from one teacher.

Student: Sorry sir, I know you are very busy .but I promise this will not take much time.
Teacher: What is your interview about anyway?

Student: My topic is sporting activities in traditional societies Sir.
Teacher: I don’t have any information on that

Student: You still know more than me Sir.
Teacher: come another time. Right now I am busy

Student: thank you sir. What time is good for you this afternoon?
Teacher: One thirty.

Student: I will be here at one thirty sir. May I leave my short questionnaire behind for you to look at?
Teacher: place it on the table over there.

Conversation between student and teacher


Modal auxiliaries include will, shall, should, can, and must. They are used to express prediction, certainty and obligation.

Expressing Predictions

When you want to make predictions, you use ‘will” and ‘shall”. You predicting because you are talking about things that have not take place. For example;

1. I think the country will change.

2. I know he will win the elections.

Shall” is mostly used in the first person (I /we). Its use, however, is not very common. It is mostly used in questions when:

1. Making offers, for example: shall I get you another cup of tea?

2. Making suggestions, for example: shall we go to the stadium on Saturday?

Express Certainty

When we want to express certainty we use ‘will” and sometimes “must”. For example:

1. You will have noticed that corruption has gone down.

2. The principal won’t (will not) be in the office.

3. It will be alright.

4. I am very tired. I will not go anywhere.

Must” is sometimes used to show that something is certain, example:

1. It must have rained heavily last night.

2. This must be his house; I recognise the car parked outside.

In this use, the opposite of must is’ cannot’ or ‘cant’. For example, the two sentences above would be:

1. It can’t have rained heavily last night.

2. This can’t be his house; I don’t recognise the car parked outside.

Expressing Obligation

To express obligation we use “should’ and ‘must’. For example:

1. Every student must work hard in school.

2. Member of parliament must fulfil their election promises.

3. Doctors should listen to patients carefully.

4. Children should obey their parents.

NB: In these sentences,’ should” and ‘must” are used to express what is required or what is expected.

Rewrite these sentences using ‘must’ or “cant”. The first two are done for you.

1. I’m sure she’s at home. She must be at home.

2. I’m sure you’re not serious. I know you’re joking. You can’t be serious. You must be joking.

3. I ‘m certain you’re disappointed.

4. I’m sure she thinks I’m mean.

5. They’re always buying new cars-I m certain they make a lot of money.

6. Are you an architect? I’m sure that an interesting job.

7. I know that isn’t my bag – it is my brothers.

8. I’m sure he’s unhappy.

9. I’m sure he has problems at home; he doesn’t like getting home early.

10. I m sure there’s some way I can help him solve his problem.


Activity 4          
Read and study the dialogue below between Jamila and Jasmine:

Jamila: How are you my friend Jasmine?
Jasmine: I’m fines how about you?

Jamila: I’m also ok! But I have something to share with you.
Jasmine: What?

Jamila: I’m very afraid of disease called HIV/ADIS
Jasmine: Oh! My friend, there are several ways on how to be out of disease.

Jamila: What are they?
Jasmine: One of the most effective ways is to abstain from doing sexual intercourse.

Jamila: What more do you think I should do?
Jasmine: oh! My friend, the other way is to use condoms and to have a single faithful partner.

Giving advice