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Wednesday, July 11, 2018

PHYSICS: FORM ONE: Topic 1 - INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS

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TOPIC 1: INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS
Physics is often described as the study of matter and energy. It is concerned with how matter and energy relate to each other, and how they affect each other over time and through space. Physicists ask the fundamental questions how did the universe begin? how and of what is it made? how does it change? what rules govern its behavior?
The Concepts of Physics
Explain the concepts of physics
Physics is one of the branches of science which explains about how things behave or occur in our environment. For example, physics explains about how an airplane fly, how does sound travel, why do ice melt, how do things move and how does they come to stop.
Physics enables us to know the uses of concepts of force, energy, motion, structure, size and shape of materials and the way they affect each other, behave or change.
Therefore,Physics is defined as the study of the relationship between matter and energy. A person who studies and deals with physics is known as a physicist.
A person who studies and deals with physics is known as a physicist.
Physics uses scientific methods to form theories and concepts which can be used by different scientists to design, make, create, use and change different kinds of technology so as to make life more useful as well as simplifying work.
The Relationship between Physics and other Subjects
Establish the relationship between physics and other subjects
Physics is one of the wide fields of study and it relates with other subjects as follows;
i. Chemistry – Chemistry deals with the matter and its properties. Chemistry uses the idea of physics in many aspects such as measurement of mass, volume or densities of chemicals, designing apparatus for storing chemicals, putting sprays e.g perfumes and insecticides in high pressure inside the cans so that they spread over large distances when come out.
ii.Biology – Biology deals with living things and life. It requires the knowledge of physics to know how sunlight (light energy) is transmitted to green plants to make them produce own food in a process known as photosynthesis.
iii. Mathematics – Mathematical concepts and formula are widely used in teaching and learning of physics. Formula like Distance travelled = Speed x Time, simplify the way physics concepts can be applied and understood.
iv.Geography – Geography deals with the study of man and his surroundings. Physics has a big relationship with geography such as in the technology used for measuring weather and climate. Also, nature, structure and components of the universe are well explained using physics concepts. Physics explains how the formation of rocks takes place and the way the rocks disintegrate to form soil.
Importance of Studying Physics
State the importance of studying physics
Why Study Physics?
  1. Physics helps us to understand how the world around us works, from can openers, light bulbs and cell phones to muscles, lungs and brains; from paints, piccolos and pirouettes to cameras, cars and cathedrals; from earthquakes, tsunamis and hurricanes to quarks, DNA and black holes. From the prosaic . . . to the profound . . . to the poetic. . .
  2. Physics helps us toorganize the universe.It deals with fundamentals, and helps us tosee the connectionsbetween seemly disparate phenomena.Physics gives us powerful tools to help us toexpress our creativity, to see the world in new ways and then to change it.
  3. Physics providesquantitative and analytic skillsneeded foranalyzing data and solving problemsin the sciences, engineering and medicine, as well as in economics, finance, management, law and public policy.
  4. Physics is the basis for most modern technology, and for the tools and instruments used in scientific, engineering and medical research and development. Manufacturing is dominated by physics-based technology.
  5. Physics helps you to help others.Doctors that don’t understand physics can be dangerous. Medicine without physics technology would be barbaric. Schools without qualified physics teachers cut their students off from a host of well-respected, well paying careers.

The Applications of Physics in Real Life
Explain the applications of physics in real life
Discoveries in Physics have led to various inventions that influence our lives.
  1. At home;All tools and machinery that we use in our homes to make work easier are made in accordance with the laws of Physics. They include crowbars, hammers, door handles, cutlery, hinges, car jack, pulleys, tillage implements, and so many other things. For example, it would be difficult for us to try to lift a car so as to change its tyres. However, using a car jack makes this task easy. Electrical appliances such as cooker, iron, heater, electric lamps, washing machine and so on are a result of the application of the knowledge of physics.
  2. Medical field; A variety of medical processes and machinery rely on the application of the knowledge of Physics. Some of these machines are used in diagnosis and treatment of various ailments as well as sustaining the lives of patients through certain forms of therapy. Examples of machines used in hospitals include laser, x-ray, incubators, ultrasound and infrared machines. The knowledge used in handling and even actual use of these machines is based on the knowledge and skills acquired in Physics.
  3. Source of energy; Some processes and machines help us to obtain energy for our daily use. These machines make use of various laws of physics to give us different forms of energy. For example, batteries and generators provide electrical energy that is readily used in radios and televisions. A car battery provides energy needed to drive a car. When devices like bulbs are connected to these sources, they provide light energy for daily use.
  4. Transport; Application of laws of Physics governing concepts such as friction and frictional forces ensures that human beings and animals can walk, run and stop without falling over. Vessels used in transportation such as cars, ships, aeroplanes and trains are also able to move, brake and stop when necessary. This is all because the laws related to friction; flotation and balance are observed and applied accordingly. When these laws are disobeyed, ships sink and trains derail.
  5. Communication; Devices used in communication systems such as telephones, modems for accessing the internet and television, use cables, telecommunication transmitters and receivers to relay information. The knowledge of Physics is essential, because these instruments make use of fiber optics and radio waves in order to relay messages. Newspapers, letters, electronic mails (email), fax massages from fax machines and short messages (SMS) through mobile phones are reliable means of communication. All these things require the knowledge of Physics.
  6. Entertainment; Physics enables people to enjoy a variety of leisure activities as is evident in photography, digital appliances, exercise machines and other sport equipment.
  7. Industry; Physicists have been able to come up with tools and process that have resulted in advanced technological equipment and new discoveries. These include highly accurate skills such as computer assembly and computer programs used in design; and instruments like binoculars and telescopes; the ability to land on the moon and measure the temperature of bodies are a few examples.
  8. In schools;The instruments and apparatus used in school laboratories are made through the application of the knowledge and skill acquired in a Physics class. These apparatus have to meet certain specifications or standards that are universally accepted.
Physics in Daily Life
Apply physics in daily life
Each of us applies physics in day to day activities.
Having an understanding of physics may also help an individual to lift something heavy. For example, by using a simple machine such as an inclined plane or a lever, an individual can make the load easier to lift. Physicists study simple machines extensively and use the lessons they learn to make increasingly efficient tools.
It is not easy to walk on a slippery floor unless we wear shoes made with a rough sole.
To stay warm in the winter, people up turn the heat up or use the principles of physics to understand how to make better use of the heat that is already in their homes. Heat flows via conductive, radiant and convective means; understanding the differences between the three forms will allow an individual to insulate a house better. For example, by using ceiling fans intelligently, someone can make the convective heat flow in a house work to their advantage.
A car driver must be aware of the forces around him in order to keep the car in position when moving and to avoid overturn when moving around corners.
A football player knows that for a ball to go at a far point he must kick it with an extra force so that it absorbs enough energy.
A cooker knows that he/she must use a sharp knife when cutting a piece of meat so as to avoid application of greater force.
A person swimming has to displace large volume of water so as to continue floating.
Therefore, in one way or another, physics is essential in our daily life.


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