FROM COLONIALISM TO THE FIRST WORLD WAR (1880'S-1914)
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Colonialism is the practice by which a powerful country directly controls less powerful countries and uses their resources to increase its own power and wealth.
From about 1880 European attitude to colonies in Africa changed remarkably and as a result within a space of 20 years nearly the whole of African continent was under European rule.
By 1870’s witnessed the rise of monopoly capitalism which involved with cut-throat competition among the imperialist European nations. European factories were producing a lot of cheap goods that were running out of people to sell them to. With there home market saturated European manufacturers and merchants turned more to Africa. Cloth, clothing, alcohol, guns and metal manufactured goods were poured in market in search for new market. Because of stiff competition, free trade was abolished and protectionism was adopted. Britain’s major trading rivals, France and later Germany realized that the only to beat British competition was to establish colonies or protected areas in Africa. Where other European nations will not be allowed to trade or heavily taxed.
After the Berlin Conference of 1884/1885, the Europeans conquered the African continent officially, the colonial State was implanted as a devised mechanism for imperialist occupation and exploitation. Being foreign, undesired and repressive, the colonial state was imposed and upheld by coercion — from the start to the end, it worked with instruments of coercion; army, police, courts and prisons.