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Monday, February 21, 2022

CONJUNCTIONS - Definitions, Types, Examples, Usage - Exercises with Answers


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Definitions of Conjunction

- A conjunction is a word that is used to connect words, phrases, and clauses.


- Conjunction is a word that connects or joins clauses, words, phrases together in a sentence.


- A conjunction is the glue that holds words, phrases and clauses (both dependent and independent) together.


- Conjunction is a word used to connect clauses or sentences or to coordinate words in the same clause (e.g. and, but, if).


- Conjunctions are used to join clauses, phrases, and words together for constructing sentences.


- A conjunction is a word or phrase that connects words, phrases, clauses, and sentences together.


- Conjunctions are words that join or connect the words, phrases, or clauses together.


A conjunction is a part of speech that is used to connect words, phrases, clauses, or sentences. Conjunctions are considered to be invariable grammar particle, and they may or may not stand between items they conjoin.

Types of Conjunctions

There are several different types of conjunctions that do various jobs within sentence structures. These include:

1. Subordinating Conjunctions

Subordinating conjunctions are parts of speech that join dependent clauses to independent clauses. Sometimes referred to as subordinators or subordinate conjunctions, these important words and phrases may also introduce adverb clauses.

A subordinate conjunction performs two functions within a sentence. First, it illustrates the importance of the independent clause. Second, it provides a transition between two ideas in the same sentence. The transition always indicates a place, time, or cause and effect relationship. For example: We looked in the metal canister, where Ginger often hides her candy.

Examples of Subordinating Conjunctions

In the following examples, the subordinating conjunctions are in bold for easy identification:

  1. As Sherri blew out the candles atop her birthday cake, she caught her hair on fire.
  2. Sara begins to sneeze whenever she opens the window to get a breath of fresh air.
  3. When the doorbell rang, my dog Skeeter barked loudly.

2. Coordinating Conjunctions

Coordinating conjunctions coordinate or join two or more sentences, main clauses, words, or other parts of speech which are of the same syntactic importance. Also known as coordinators, coordinating conjunctions are used to give equal emphasis to a pair of main clauses.

Coordinating Conjunction Rules

As there are only seven of these words, there are just a few rules for using coordinating conjunctions correctly:

It’s a good idea to use the mnemonic “FANBOYS” to memorize coordinating conjunctions so you’ll never forget them. They are:

    F = for
    A = and
    N = nor
    = but
    O = or
    Y = yet
    S = so

Coordinating conjunctions always connect phrases, words, and clauses. For example: This batch of mushroom stew is savoury and delicious.

Examples of Coordinating Conjunctions

In the following examples, the coordinating conjunctions have been italicized for easy identification.

  1. You can eat your cake with a spoon or fork.
  2. My dog enjoys being bathed but hates getting his nails trimmed.
  3. Bill refuses to eat peas, nor will he touch carrots.
  4. I hate to waste a drop of gas, for it is very expensive these days.

3. Correlative Conjunctions

As suggested by their name, correlative conjunctions correlate, working in pairs to join phrases or words that carry equal importance within a sentence. Like many of the most interesting parts of speech, correlative conjunctions are fun to use. At the same time, there are some important rules to remember for using them correctly.

- When using correlative conjunctions, ensure verbs agree so your sentences make sense. For example: Every night, either loud music or fighting neighbors wake John from his sleep.

When you use a correlative conjunction, you must be sure that pronouns agree. For example: Neither Debra nor Sally expressed her annoyance when the cat broke the antique lamp.

When using correlative conjunctions, be sure to keep parallel structure intact. Equal grammatical units need to be incorporated into the entire sentence. For example: Not only did Mary grill burgers for Michael, but she also fixed a steak for her dog, Vinny.

Examples of Correlative Conjunctions

In the following examples, the correlative conjunctions have been italicized for easy identification.

  1. She is both intelligent and beautiful.
  2. I will either go for a hike or stay home and watch TV.
  3. Jerry is neither rich nor famous.
  4. He is not only intelligent, but also very funny.
  5. Would you rather go shopping or spend the day at the beach?

4. Conjunctive adverbs

Conjunctive adverbs are parts of speech that are used to connect one clause to another. They are also used to show sequence, contrast, cause and effect, and other relationships.

Like other adverbs, conjunctive adverbs may be moved around in the sentence or clause in which they appear. This is just one of the things you’ll need to remember; additional rules for using conjunctive adverbs follow:

- Always use a period or semicolon before the conjunctive adverb when separating two independent clauses. Conjunctive adverbs are not strong enough to join independent clauses without supporting punctuation.

- Use a comma if a conjunction such as and, but, or, or so appears between the conjunctive adverb and the first clause.

- Use a comma behind conjunctive adverbs when they appear at the beginning of a sentence’s second clause. The only exception to this rule is that no comma is necessary if the adverb is a single syllable.

- If a conjunctive adverb appears in the middle of a clause, it should be enclosed in commas most of the time. This is not an absolute rule and does not normally apply to short clauses.

Examples of Conjunctive adverbs

The conjunctive adverbs in the following examples are in bold for easy identification.

  1. Jeremy kept talking in class; therefore, he got in trouble.
  2. She went into the store; howevershe didn’t find anything she wanted to buy.
  3. I like you a lot; in fact, I think we should be best friends.
  4. Your dog got into my yard; in addition, he dug up my petunias.
  5. You’re my friend; nonethelessI feel like you’re taking advantage of me.
  6. My car payments are high; on the other hand, I really enjoy driving such a nice vehicle.

Conjunction Rules

There are a few important rules for using conjunctions. Remember them and you will find that your writing flows better:

- Conjunctions are for connecting thoughts, actions, and ideas as well as nouns, clauses, and other parts of speech. For example: Mary went to the supermarket and bought oranges.

- Conjunctions are useful for making lists. For example: We made pancakes, eggs, and coffee for breakfast.

When using conjunctions, make sure that all the parts of your sentences agree. For example: “I work busily yet am careful” does not agree. “I work busily yet carefully” shows agreement.

    More Examples of Conjunctions

    In the following examples, the conjunctions are in bold for easy recognition:

    - I tried to hit the nail but hit my thumb instead.

    - I have two goldfish and a cat.

    - I’d like a bike for commuting to work.

    - You can have peach ice cream or a brownie sundae.

    - Neither the black dress nor the gray one looks right on me.

    - My dad always worked hard so we could afford the things we wanted.

    - I try very hard in school yet I am not receiving good grades.


What is a conjunction?

A conjunction is a word like and, but, although, because. Conjunctions have an important function because they join other words and phrases together. Without conjunctions, we could only make very, very simple sentences. 

Introduction to Conjunctions

We can consider conjunctions from three aspects.

1. What do Conjunctions Do?

Conjunctions have two basic functions or "jobs":

  • Coordinating conjunctions are used to join two parts of a sentence that are grammatically equal. The two parts may be single words or clauses, for example:
    Jack and Jill went up the hill.
    The water was warm, but I didn't go swimming.
  • Subordinating conjunctions are used to join a subordinate dependent clause to a main clause, for example:
    I went swimming although it was cold.

Here are some example conjunctions:

Coordinating conjunctionsSubordinating conjunctions
and, but, or, nor, for, yet, soalthough, because, since, unless

2. What do Conjunctions Look Like?

Conjunctions have three basic formats:

  1. single word
    for example: and, but, because, although
  2. compound (often ending with as or that)
    for example: provided that, as long as, in order that
  3. correlative (surrounding an adverb or adjective)
    for example: so...that

3. Where do Conjunctions Go?

  • Coordinating conjunctions always come between the words or clauses that they join.
  • Subordinating conjunctions usually come at the beginning of the subordinate clause.

Coordinating Conjunctions

coordinating conjunction joins parts of a sentence (for example words or independent clauses) that are grammatically equal or similar. A coordinating conjunction shows that the elements it joins are similar in importance and structure:

clause + clause

There are seven coordinating conjunctions, and they are all short words of only two or three letters:

  • and, but, or, nor, for, yet, so

Look at these examples - the two elements that the coordinating conjunction joins are shown in square brackets [ ]:

  • I like [tea] and [coffee].
  • [Ram likes tea], but [Anthony likes coffee].

Coordinating conjunctions always come between the words or clauses that they join.

When a coordinating conjunction joins independent clauses, it is always correct to place a comma before the conjunction:

  • I want to work as an interpreter in the future, so I am studying Russian at university.

However, if the independent clauses are short and well-balanced, a comma is not really essential:

  • She is kind so she helps people.

When "and" is used with the last word of a list, a comma is optional:

  • He drinks beer, whisky, wine, and rum.
  • He drinks beer, whisky, wine and rum.
The 7 coordinating conjunctions are short, simple words. They have only two or three letters. There's an easy way to remember them - their initials spell "FANBOYS", like this:


Subordinating Conjunctions

subordinating conjunction joins a subordinate (dependent) clause to a main (independent) clause:

main clause + subordinate clause

Here are some common subordinating conjunctions:

  • after, although, as, because, before, how, if, once, since, than, that, though, till, until, when, where, whether, while

Look at this example:

main or
independent clause
subordinate or
dependent clause
Ram went swimmingalthoughit was raining.
A subordinate or dependent clause "depends" on a main or independent clause. It cannot exist alone. Imagine that somebody says to you: "Hello! Although it was raining." What do you understand? Nothing! But a main or independent clause can exist alone. You will understand very well if somebody says to you: "Hello! Ram went swimming."

A subordinating conjunction always comes at the beginning of a subordinate clause. It "introduces" a subordinate clause. However, a subordinate clause can come after or before a main clause. Thus, two structures are possible:

main clause + subordinate clause
Ram went swimming although it was raining.

+ subordinate clause main clause
Although it was raining
, Ram went swimming.



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>> Conjunction Exercises with Answers