SOLVING GEOGRAPHY - NECTA 2012
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
3. (a) The Meaning of Earthquakes
- An earthquake is a sudden and rapid shaking of the ground caused by the shifting of rocks deep underneath the earth’s surface.
- Or, Earthquake is the shaking of the surface of the Earth resulting from a sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves.
b) The Effects of Earthquakes
i) They can cause loss of life and property.
An earthquake is a natural disaster. Whenever it occurs, it causes a lot of disturbances including loss of life and properties. For example, the earthquake that hit Toro in Uganda in 1966 killed 157 people, injured about 1300 people and destroyed about 6000 houses.
ii) They can displace parts of the earth’s crust vertically or laterally.
iii) They can raise or lower parts of the sea floor.
The Agadir earthquake in Morocco in 1960 raised the sea floor of the coast. In some areas the depth of the sea decreased from 400 m to 15 m after the earthquake.
iv) They can raise or lower coastal rocks.
In the Alaskan earthquake of 1899, some coastal rocks were raised by 16 m.
v) They can cause landslide and open up deep cracks in the surface rocks.
The El Asnam earthquake in Algeria, in 1954, destroyed an area of radius 40 km and opened up deep cracks up to 3 m deep.
|Destruction of Infrastructures|
c) The Ways of Reducing the Risks of earthquakes
i) Refraining from building high-rising structures on the land vulnerable to earthquake as well as strengthening buildings by using reinforced concrete, steel frames, deep foundations and light roofs.
ii) Geologists should detect epicentres and tell the people to evacuate the places likely to be affected by earthquakes.
iii) To avoid constructing very large water bodies like Kariba dam which can cause the earthquakes due to the weight of water and other materials.
iv) Discouraging the use of explosives like dynamites in breaking the rocks during mining and construction operations.
(b) Two advantages and disadvantages of compound bar graph are
(i) It is easy to read and interpret as the totals are clearly shown.
(ii) It gives a clear visual impression of the total values.
(i) The graph is very difficult to construct and interpret.
(ii) It is not easy to represent a large number of components as this would involve very long bars with many segments.
5. (a). Sampling technique refers to te style of of collecting samples from the population.
(b).(i) A Sample is the small number of population which represents the whole population
(ii) Random Sampling is a type of probability sampling where by every individual has an equal chance to be selected in a sample. This technique involves selecting a sample randomly from the sampling frame without replacement. E.g. it is very common in Lottery’s such as Bingo and communication companies.
(iii) Systematic Sampling is a sampling technique where by a sample is obtained randomly but in a systematic way. It is a sampling technique which involves selection of a sample randomly at regular intervals from the sampling frame
(iv) Stratified Sampling in this Sampling Individuals for the sample are selected from different strata. Example: A researchers wishes to get a sample of 20 students from 5 schools he/she will have to select 4 students from each.
(b) The following are the procedures of conducting an interview.
(i) Create friendly atmosphere where two people can talk easily.
(ii) Maintain warmth and friendliness. It enables respondent to express in detail their thought and feelings.
(iii) Be neutral in note and don’t suggest any answer.
(iv) Instill confidence and trust to the respondent by assuming his/her information given would be confidential.
(v) Explain briefly the purpose of the interview.
6. (a).(i) Leveling is a method or element of land surveying which deals with determining points on land surface above sea level. The points of known height are called benchmarks and they are determined from an assumed zero height point at sea level called datum. It employs leveling instrument such as theodolite and the abney level.
(ii) four benefits of leveling survey are
- It helps to determine the relative heights on land that can be used in contour mapping.
- Leveling can be used for determination of heights or elevation of the land surface such as hills, valleys, plans
- Housing foundation, the location of industrial sites, the route of communication and sites of building can be located and determine with the help of leveling.
- It is also important in the construction of routes of transport like roads and railways.
(b) Essential equipments used in leveling surveying.
(i) Leveling staff
(ii) Survey Telescope
(iii) Tape, chain and pegs.
(iv) Note book and pencils.
(v) Spirit level or buble tube.
7. (a). Relief features found on this mapped area are hills and mountain due to the presence of hills name eg Lukoka hill and contour lines
(b). Area of whole map of Korogwe
calculating area using the square method
(i) Count the full square covered by whole map of Korogwe
Full square= 168
(ii) Also count half square covered by whole map of Korogwe and divide it by 2
Half square = 42÷2
(iii) Add full square and half square result obtained by divided half square by 2
(iv) Convert map area into actual area
Scale =1:50000, this means 1cm = 1/2 km
Use this scale to calculate whole map of Korogwe ( 1cm=1/2km)
Square both side 1cm=1/2km to get relationship between cm and km in square unit.
(1cm) square= (1/2) square
1cm square = 0.25km square
(v) find area of one square on the map.
To find the area of one square on the map, take a rule and measure the width multiply by itself.
Area of square = wxw
W= 2 so
Area of one square on a map = 4cmsquare
(vi) find the area of whole map of Korogwe
1cm square =0.25 km square
4cm square = x
1xX= 4x 0.25
Convert 189 square into kilometre square
189x1km square= 189 km square
Therefore Area of whole map of Korogwe = 189km square
(c) settlement patterns shown on a map are linear and nucleated settlement patterns because arrangement of houses are concentrated in a group in a relative areas and also arrangement of houses are developed along railway.
(d) Two centimetres on a map represent one kilometre on the actual ground.
8. a) Name Three Types of Geographical Photographs
- Ground or Horizontal Photographs
- Oblique Photographs
- Vertical or Aerial Photographs
b) Specify the type of Geographical Photograph which is:
i) Taken horizontally on the ground
ii) Used in map making
c) Five differences between the Vertical or Aerial photograph and Topographical Maps are
- represents a vertical “plan” of a region
- It represents a realistic image.
- Topographical map covers large area
- Vertical photographs show small area
- It contains keys and scale
- It does not contain keys and scale
- It shows grid references
- It does not show grid references
- It shows both latitudes and longitudes
- It does not show latitudes and longitudes
9. Tourism refers to the travel of people away from home to other place for recreation, leisure, religious, family, or business purposes, usually of a limited duration. Tourism involves visiting places of interest like wildlife, beaches, museums etc,
Five negative effects of tourism in East Africa are
(i) Tourism poses a threat to natural and cultural resources such as water supply, beaches, coral reefs and pollution
(ii) Tourism can cause events such as terrorism, natural disasters and economic recession.
(iii) The tourists can lead to erosion of traditional cultures and values.
(iv) Bad behavior and overcrowding to the host community
(v) Bad behavior and overcrowding to the host community.
10. Transportation refers to the process of carrying materials and people from one place to another. Major means of transport are three namely Land, Water and airport transport
Eight reasons indicating why the transportation sector is important to the economy of Tanzania are as follow
(i) It encourage the development of industries through the supply of raw materials and transport materials to the markets or consumers
(ii) It create employment in Tanzania for example some people are employed as drivers, stations masters etc
(iii) It encourage the development of Tourism in Tanzania.
(iv) It can make goods available where are they demanded.
(v) It lead to the promotion of trade in the World
(vi) It enhance the accessibility of places.
(vii) It facilitate spread of technology in Tanzania
(viii) It lead to the intensification of Unity among nations.
11. Environment refers to all external conditions surrounding an organism and which have influence over its behavior and activities.
Eight environmental problems related to the rapid population growth are
( i ) . Environmental pollution.
( ii ) . Loss of biodiversity.
( iii ) . Soil erosion and land degradation.
( iv ) . Desertification.
( v ) . Flooding.
( vi ) . Acid rain.
( vii ) . Harmful radiation.
( viii ) . Drought
12. (a) Census is an official count or survey of a population, typically recording various details of individuals.
five objectives of conducting census in a country are
(i) Determining the major demographic and socio-economic traits of the population.
(ii) Updating the data basis of population register.
(iii) Providing necessary information for sectoral planning (health, education, etc.).
(iv) Identifying geographic areas lacking certain services so that remedial measures can be taken.
(v) Providing data on buildings conditions (private or public) and their occupancy status, so current and future housing needs can properly be evaluated.
(b) Three limitations of census in African countries are
(i) Cost of Conducting Census
(ii) Traditional and Religious Beliefs can Interfere with the Census Exercise
(iii) Insufficient Census Experts